Field Crop News http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14044 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – July 20, 2017 Cereals Winter wheat harvest has begun throughout southwest Ontario but intermittent rainfall has caused delays. Some farmers in Essex County have finished harvest and initial word is that the quality and yield of the crop has been good. Harvest progress is likely 7-10 days behind what was observed in 2016 but comparable to the 2015 season. Post-harvest weed management A... Thu, 20 Jul 2017 20:16:36 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Cereals</strong></p> <p>Winter wheat harvest has begun throughout southwest Ontario but intermittent rainfall has caused delays. Some farmers in Essex County have finished harvest and initial word is that the quality and yield of the crop has been good. Harvest progress is likely 7-10 days behind what was observed in 2016 but comparable to the 2015 season.</p> <p><strong>Post-harvest weed management</strong></p> <p>A significant amount of annual weed seeds can be produced and dispersed after wheat harvest if the ground is left fallow. In some years, annual weed seed can mature in as little as 4 weeks after harvest. Planting a cover crop (i.e. oats) after wheat harvest can do a nice job of minimizing the amount of annual weeds going to seed and then allows for an opportunity in the fall to terminate the cover crop and deal with perennial weeds at the same time.  If it is not desirable to plant a cover crop, shallow tillage can also reduce the amount of weeds setting seed and will allow the perennial weeds to re-grow so that they can be managed in the fall.</p> <p>If red clover was inter-seeded into the wheat crop there are a couple of ways that you can knock back annual weed growth so that you can let the clover grow as much as possible and maximize its nitrogen credit. The tried and true method, but most labour intensive, is to “clip” or trim the top of the red clover which will ‘chop off’ the weed seed heads at the same time. More recently OMAFRA and the University of Guelph have experimented with the application of MCPA as a way to manage broadleaf weeds in a red clover cover crop. There are three key learnings from this work.</p> <ul> <li>The ester formulation of MCPA (Figure 1.) causes significantly less plant damage then the amine formulation (Figure 2.)</li> <li>Red clover biomass is initially stunted during the first week after application but does recover within 2-3 weeks.</li> <li>Targeting broadleaf weeds when they are smaller will result in better control. If annual grassy weeds are predominant then the application of MCPA Ester will be insufficient and clipping is a better option to minimize weed seed dispersal.</li> </ul> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14045" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-1024x765.jpg" alt="Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Ester (left) compared to an un-treated strip. Note the curling of the leaves giving a slightly grey appearance" width="1024" height="765" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-1024x765.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-300x224.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-768x574.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1:</strong>  Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Ester (left) compared to an un-treated strip. Note the curling of the leaves giving a slightly grey appearance.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14047" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-1024x765.jpg" alt="Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Amine (left) compared to an un-treated strip. The amine formulation has consistently provided greater foliar burn then the ester formulation." width="1024" height="765" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-1024x765.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-300x224.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-768x574.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 2:</strong>  Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Amine (left) compared to an un-treated strip. The amine formulation has consistently provided greater foliar burn then the ester formulation.</p> <p><strong>Corn</strong></p> <p>Western bean cutworm moths have been found in traps throughout southwestern Ontario (Figure 3.). An interactive map of trapping numbers can be found at <a href="http://www.cornpest.ca">www.cornpest.ca</a> .  Moth flight activity has indicated that it’s a good time to scout fields for egg masses which have become visible in several fields (Figure 4.) with some approaching or are above the action threshold of 5 egg mass per 100 corn plants.  Peak flight has not occurred yet in Ontario so to provide the most protection with one application, time the application once threshold has been reached and when there is an ear developing with fresh silks.  Download the pestmanager app (<a href="http://www.pestmanager.ca">www.pestmanager.ca</a>) to have access to management options for this pest.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14049" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-1024x562.jpg" alt="Map of Western Bean Cutworm found in traps throughout Ontario. Grey dots indicate that no data has been collected, Blue dots indicate no moths have been captured, green dots indicate 1-50 moths have been captured, yellow indicates 51-100 moths have been captured and orange dots indicate that 101-250 moths have been captured." width="1024" height="562" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-1024x562.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-300x165.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-768x422.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 3:</strong>  Map of Western Bean Cutworm found in traps throughout Ontario. Grey dots indicate that no data has been collected, Blue dots indicate no moths have been captured, green dots indicate 1-50 moths have been captured,  yellow indicates 51-100 moths have been captured and orange dots indicate that 101-250 moths have been captured.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14051" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-1024x814.jpg" alt="Newly hatched western bean cutworms (1st instars) from an egg mass." width="1024" height="814" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-1024x814.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-300x238.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-768x610.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 4:</strong>  Newly hatched western bean cutworms (1<sup>st</sup> instars) from an egg mass.</p> <p><strong>Soybeans</strong></p> <p>There have been no significant reports of soybean aphids, although regular scouting should be done from now until the R6 (full seed) stage of soybean to minimize any yield loss with this pest.  The action threshold is 250 aphids per plant, and with actively increasing populations on 80% of those plants when the crop is in the R1 stage until end of R5 stage.</p> <p><strong>Edible beans:</strong> Monitor traps to determine WBC presence in your area and be aware of what WBC infestations are like in adjacent corn fields.  Bean fields should be scouted as soon as a pod is developing to spot any pod feeding by western bean cutworm. Refer to the moth trapping maps at <a href="http://www.cornpest.ca">www.cornpest.ca</a>  to identify areas where moths are actively being trapped.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   July 12 – 18, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14055" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_t1.jpg" alt=" July 12 – 18, 2017 Weather data" width="537" height="432" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_t1.jpg 537w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_t1-300x241.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 537px) 100vw, 537px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/feed/ 0 2017-07-20 20:16 +00:00 2017-07-20 16:16 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14031 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/crop-report-july-13-2017/ Uncategorized Crop Report – July 13, 2017 Nutrient Deficiencies in Soybeans Leaf yellowing and slow growth is evident in many fields. Stressful growing conditions will amplify nutrient deficiency symptoms, insect feeding, and disease symptoms. When plants are already stressed it’s even more important to manage deficiencies wherever possible. Fortunately, weather conditions over the next four to six weeks are more crucial to seed development than the first... Thu, 13 Jul 2017 16:09:40 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/crop-report-july-13-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Nutrient Deficiencies in Soybeans</strong></p> <p>Leaf yellowing and slow growth is evident in many fields. Stressful growing conditions will amplify nutrient deficiency symptoms, insect feeding, and disease symptoms. When plants are already stressed it’s even more important to manage deficiencies wherever possible. Fortunately, weather conditions over the next four to six weeks are more crucial to seed development than the first half of the growing season. Conditions from now on will play a bigger role in final yield than May or June.</p> <p><strong>Potassium (K) </strong></p> <p>K deficient leaves turn yellow along the leaf margins and may cup downward (Figure 1.). Lower leaves are affected first. Factors that limit root growth such as dry conditions and sidewall compaction will reduce K uptake. Under dry conditions roots are less able to take up K from the soil even if soil K levels are sufficient. Water logged soils will also inhibit uptake. A soil test is the only reliable way to know if a field is truly low in K or only showing stress-induced potassium deficiencies. It’s also important to note that K deficiency symptoms may indicate soybean cyst nematode (SCN) feeding on the roots. When taking soil samples ask the lab to also test for SCN. It’s difficult to alleviate K deficiency now since foliar products cannot supply enough potassium through the leaf to rectify the problem. A dry application of potash may still be warranted in severe cases. Yield response will depend on the amount of rainfall after application. Generally, fertilizing low testing fields can result in a yield increase of 3 to 5 bu/ac.</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f1.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-large wp-image-14032" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f1-768x1024.jpg" alt="Potassium (K) deficiency in soybeans " width="768" height="1024" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f1-768x1024.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f1-225x300.jpg 225w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f1.jpg 1536w" sizes="(max-width: 768px) 100vw, 768px" /></a></p> <p><strong>Figure 1.  </strong>Potassium (K) deficiency in soybeans</p> <p><strong>Manganese (Mn)</strong></p> <p>Symptoms of Mn deficiency are interveinal chlorosis (yellowing) (Figure .2). Mn is immobile in the plant so symptoms will generally appear on the younger leaves first. One of the most significant factors affecting the availability of Mn is soil pH. As soil pH increases, Mn availability decreases. Deficiencies can also appear on eroded knolls where the pH is higher than the rest of the field. The deficiency is most common on poorly-drained soils, especially clays and silt loams. High organic matter also ties up Mn. Manganese is less soluble in well-aerated soils. This is why compacted areas (wheel tracks) are dark green while the rest of the field goes yellow. A foliar application of Mn works well to rectify the deficiency and can provide a 5 bu/ac yield response in severe cases.</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f2.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-large wp-image-14034" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg" alt="Manganese deficiency in soybeans" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f2-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_f2-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></a></p> <p><strong>Figure 2.  </strong>Manganese deficiency in soybeans</p> <p><strong>Nitrogen (N)</strong></p> <p>Nitrogen deficiency in soybeans is usually evident early in the season before N fixation can occur. Soybeans naturally go through a period when leaves turn light green or even pale yellow. This is the period just before the nodules start to supply adequate nitrogen. Once the nodules have established and start providing enough nitrogen, the leaves will turn a dark green colour. If no nodules are present because it’s a first time soybean field and there has been a nodulation failure, an application of urea is warranted.</p> <p><strong>Phosphorus (P)</strong></p> <p>Recent trials have demonstrated surprising yield responses to P in soybeans. Traditional thinking was that soybeans do not show a significant yield response to P fertilizer unless soil test values are very low. Visual P deficiency symptoms are rare and difficult to identify even when present. The plants are slow to grow, spindly, and the leaves remain smaller and lighter in colour. However, these symptoms are subtle and usually overlooked. Soil compaction limiting root growth will cause weather induced deficiency. Ontario trials conducted over the last 5 years have shown that when soil tests are less than 20 ppm for P (Olsen) and less than 120 ppm for K, the application of potash by itself only raised yields by 1 bu/ac. When both P and K were applied yields increased by 4 bu/ac. When P soil test levels were less than 20 ppm but soil test levels for K were greater than 120 ppm, the application of P increased yields by 3 bu/ac across in this study. This is strong evidence that phosphorus is a critical component to high yielding soybeans. If soil tests are adequate for either P or K additional fertilizer does not increase yields.</p> <p>&#8220;For more information about soybean nutrition and soil fertility, see OMAFRA Publication 811 Agronomy Guide for Field Crops available at <a href="ontario.ca/c9uz">ontario.ca/c9uz</a>&#8221;</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   July 5 – 11, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_t1.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-full wp-image-14036" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_t1.jpg" alt="Table 1. July 5 – 11, 2017 Weather data" width="540" height="432" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_t1.jpg 540w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_13_2017_t1-300x240.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 540px) 100vw, 540px" /></a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/crop-report-july-13-2017/feed/ 0 2017-07-13 16:09 +00:00 2017-07-13 12:09 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14020 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/ Corn Edible Beans Uncategorized scouting recommendations Spray timing wbc trap network western bean cutworm For Western Bean Cutworm – Timing is Key I&#8217;m seeing a lot of pics on Twitter of recent WBC moth catches in traps, which I think is great.  The more people that are trapping, the more data we have to work with to determine when peak flight takes place and when scouting is required. But trap counts do not indicate if a spray is required in corn.  There... Fri, 07 Jul 2017 19:50:46 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p>I&#8217;m seeing a lot of pics on Twitter of recent WBC moth catches in traps, which I think is great.  The more people that are trapping, the more data we have to work with to determine when peak flight takes place and when scouting is required. But trap counts <strong>do not</strong> indicate if a spray is required in corn.  There is no relationship between trap counts and WBC infestation levels in the corn field that the trap is positioned at. Traps are used for only two purposes. 1) to indicate whether or not moths are flying in your area (especially for those locations other than the normal hotspot regions of Bothwell and Tilsonburg since sadly, these areas always have them) and 2) to indicate when peak moth flight occurs since this is followed shortly thereafter by peak mating and egg laying. Peak flight means scouting time!</p> <div id="attachment_14021" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/wbc-peak-flight-by-county-map-2016/" rel="attachment wp-att-14021"><img class="wp-image-14021 size-medium" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Peak-Flight-by-County-Map-2016-300x166.jpg" alt="2016 WBC Peak Moth Flight by County by Week" width="300" height="166" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Peak-Flight-by-County-Map-2016-300x166.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Peak-Flight-by-County-Map-2016-768x426.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Peak-Flight-by-County-Map-2016-1024x568.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Peak-Flight-by-County-Map-2016.jpg 1100w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">2016 WBC Peak Moth Flight for southwestern Ontario by County by Week. Dark Green = Week 8 Peak (18-24 July); Lime Green = Week 9 Peak (25-31 July); Yellow = Week 10 Peak (Aug1-7); White = No Data for that County</p></div> <p>We see moths flying around as early as mid June and it is normal to see catches increase over time. Peak flight varies each year and for each county or region but typically occurs sometime during the third week of July, forth week of July and first week of August.  So having a number of traps set up in each region and county helps us to determine which week peak flight takes place for any given location. Even if you don&#8217;t have a trap,  you can still see the interactive trap maps for this year and see what is going on in your county <a href="http://www.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=a9e6a076b6cf4ff281cdff460d3ffdad&amp;extent=-9536825.4859,4865123.8334,-7971395.1466,5987830.9048,102100" target="_blank">here </a>via OMAFRA AgMaps.</p> <p>Where a relationship does exist is between the crop stage and egg laying<strong>. </strong>Female moths try their best to lay their eggs on plants that have a tassel developing in them. WBC larvae do not feed on the corn leaves so if there is no tassel tissue, the larvae starve.  Spraying eggs or larvae prior to any tassel being available on the plant is of no value at all, since the larvae are going to die anyway. You are best to target both scouting and spraying during the ideal egg laying period which follows shortly after peak moth flight. Pre-tassel to full tassel stage is the most attractive stage for the moth to lay her eggs.  <em><strong>Fields in the pre-tassel to full tassel stage during and shortly after peak flight are most at risk.</strong> </em> Once the corn field is beyond full tassel stage and the tassel is spent, moths prefer to go to dry beans or later planted corn fields nearby.</p> <div id="attachment_14023" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/wbc-moth-trap-catches-and-peak-flight/" rel="attachment wp-att-14023"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14023" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Moth-Trap-Catches-and-Peak-Flight-300x168.jpg" alt="Peak egg laying follows peak flight. Larvae present prior to tassel development die of starvation." width="300" height="168" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Moth-Trap-Catches-and-Peak-Flight-300x168.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Moth-Trap-Catches-and-Peak-Flight-768x431.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Moth-Trap-Catches-and-Peak-Flight-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WBC-Moth-Trap-Catches-and-Peak-Flight.jpg 819w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Peak egg laying follows peak flight. Larvae present prior to tassel development die of starvation.</p></div> <p><em><strong>Scout fields or areas of field according to their growth stage.</strong></em> Knowing that peak flight occurs within in a three week window from the third week of July to 1st week of August, scout fields according to their growth stage during that period. Each week the stage will change so focus each week on those in pre-tassel to full tassel stage. Scout all corn fields, regardless of their Bt trait with the exception of those with the Vip3A trait. Only Agrisure Viptera hybrids provide effective control against WBC. All other Bt traits no longer provide protection against this pest and should be scouted.</p> <p>Scout 10 plants in 10 areas of the field looking for egg masses on the top two to four leaves of the plant. If a field is quite variable, with different areas in different stages at one time, go to the area(s) in the ideal crop stage that week and scout those plants. The next week, a different area of the field may be at risk. Moths are more likely to stick around in the same field for a few weeks, instead of leaving to go to other fields, if she can find an areas that has plants in the ideal crop stage.</p> <p>Use cumulative counts to determine if threshold has been reached. A spray is required if you find an accumulation of <strong>5% of the plants with egg masses or small larvae</strong> over a two to three week period during pre-tassel to late tassel stages.</p> <p><strong>Time the spray application close to when fresh silks are present.</strong> This is when the majority of the larvae will have made their way to the silks to feed on before entering the ear.  Tankmixing with fungicides for ear mold protection during this time will help provide protection from both WBC and ear rots.</p> <p>To reduce the risk of resistance to an insecticide, rotate between chemical families each year or use an insecticide that contains two modes of action. Follow buffer zones on product labels to reduce the risk of non-target exposure of pollinators and aquatic invertebrates.</p> <p>More insecticide information, life cycle, images and guidelines can be found at:</p> <p><a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html" target="_blank">Field Crop Protection Guide </a> or  <span class="editableObject editableComponent"><span class="editableObjectContents">Pest Manager App: <a href="https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.agnition.pestmanager&amp;hl=en" target="_blank">Android </a>and<a href="https://itunes.apple.com/ca/app/pest-manager/id945684754?mt=8" target="_blank"> Apple</a></span></span></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WBC-Scouting-and-Management-2017-Corn-Final-2.pdf" target="_blank">2017 WBC Infosheet for Corn</a></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WBC-2017-Dry-Bean-Infosheet-2.pdf" target="_blank">2017 WBC Infosheet for Dry Beans</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.cornpest.ca/wbc-trap-network/" target="_blank">Western Bean Cutworm Trap Network</a> for Michigan, Ontario and Quebec</p> <p><a href="https://www.cornpest.ca/wbc-trap-network/wbc-trapping-instructions/" target="_blank">Western Bean Cutworm Trapping Instructions and Supply List</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/feed/ 0 2017-07-07 19:50 +00:00 2017-07-07 15:50 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14002 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/crop-report-july-6-2017/ Uncategorized Crop Report – July 6, 2017 Western Bean Cutworm Western bean cutworm (WBC) traps have been set on corn and dry edible bean fields across southern Ontario, and low numbers of moths are being caught. Traps are used to monitor moth activity (Figure 1.) and indicate when scouting is required, and are not intended to determine when to spray insecticide. Up to date trap capture data... Thu, 06 Jul 2017 17:13:02 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/crop-report-july-6-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Western Bean Cutworm</strong></p> <p>Western bean cutworm (WBC) traps have been set on corn and dry edible bean fields across southern Ontario, and low numbers of moths are being caught. Traps are used to monitor moth activity (Figure 1.) and indicate when scouting is required, and are not intended to determine when to spray insecticide. Up to date trap capture data and more information on WBC can be viewed at <a href="http://www.cornpest.ca/wbc-trap-network/">www.cornpest.ca/wbc-trap-network/</a> .</p> <p><strong><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f1.jpg"><img class="alignleft wp-image-14003" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f1-824x1024.jpg" alt="Western Bean Cutworm moth in corn leaf collar" width="428" height="532" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f1-824x1024.jpg 824w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f1-241x300.jpg 241w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f1-768x954.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f1.jpg 1026w" sizes="(max-width: 428px) 100vw, 428px" /><br /> </a></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Figure 1. </strong>Western Bean Cutworm moth in corn leaf collar</p> <p>Spraying for WBC control in corn is warranted if 5% or more of plants have egg masses. WBC eggs are laid on the upper surface of the top 3 to 4 leaves of corn plants (Figure .2) WBC prefer fields in the whorl to pre-tassel stages of corn. Once the corn crop is in tassel or beyond, the moths prefer to lay their eggs on the dry bean crop or later planted corn fields still in pre-tassel stages. Peak moth flight is typically the last week of July, first week of August (starting first in the SW and then into E ON). Only corn hybrids containing Vip3A provide protection against WBC.</p> <p><strong><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f2.jpg"><img class="alignleft wp-image-14006" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg" alt="Western Bean Cutworm eggs hatching on corn leaf" width="556" height="417" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f2-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_f2-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 556px) 100vw, 556px" /></a></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Figure 2. </strong> Western Bean Cutworm eggs hatching on corn leaf</p> <p>In dry beans, it is extremely difficult to find eggs or larvae. The larvae are active at night and hide in the soil during the day.  It is more productive to scout for signs of feeding holes in the pods.  Pod feeding is expected to start approximately 10 to 20 days after peak flight.  If entry holes are observed in the pods, an insecticide application is necessary. Effective control can occur if pod feeding is spotted early. Select insecticides with some residual. Dry bean fields next to corn fields that have reached threshold are at risk, especially if the corn is beyond the pre-tassel stages.</p> <p>Insecticide application is most effective when it is done close to or shortly after egg hatch. Eggs hatch occurs one or two days after turning purple. Pay attention to pre-harvest intervals, particularly in dry beans. Consult the Field Crop Protection Guide- Publication 812 for product information <a href="http://www.ontario.ca/ctaw">ontario.ca/ctaw</a>.</p> <p><strong>Soybean Aphids</strong></p> <p>There have been reports of soybean aphids, and for many it seems to be early in the season. Neonicotinoid seed treatments provide protection against soybean aphids for just two weeks or so after planting, according to several recently published reports in the US. This research also confirms that the IPM approach of a well-timed foliar insecticide at threshold in the R1 to R5 stages has greatest yield response where aphid infestations exist.</p> <p>Early planted fields and fields close to buckthorn are more likely to have soybean aphid colonizing at this time, and may have very high aphid counts per plant in pockets near field edges. However, scouting a few more metres into the field will likely show few or no aphids. Very high aphid counts in these pockets attract natural enemies. Spraying too early when the colonies have just started will delay natural enemy populations from building up and responding to these aphids.  <strong>Insecticide trials have not been able to show any yield response to sprays done on these vegetative stage infestations.</strong> <strong> In fact, a spray application during the V stages can actually lead to problems because they easily wipes out the natural enemies. This results in aphids rebounding quickly and potentially requiring a second spray again once the crop does reach the R stages.</strong></p> <p><strong>Research has found that an insecticide application is required once 80% of the plants in the field have at least 250 aphids per plant and it is apparent that the population is on the increase during the R1 to R5 stage of the soybeans.</strong> This threshold gives an<strong> approximate 7–10-day lead time</strong> before the aphids would reach the economic injury level, where cost of control is equal to yield loss. Experience has shown that natural enemies can keep the aphid population fluctuating around the 250 aphid threshold.  This fluctuation means they are working hard at controlling the aphid population. It is only when the aphid populations continue to rise instead of fluctuate, that the natural enemies are not plentiful enough to keep up.</p> <p>The Aphid Advisor (<a href="http://www.aphidapp.com/">www.aphidapp.com</a>) is a helpful tool to use when scouting for soybean aphid in Ontario. Developed by University of Guelph, based on field research conducted in Ontario, it determines if there are enough natural enemies to keep aphid populations in check or if an insecticide application may be needed. Just enter the number of aphids and natural enemies present during R1 to R5 and the app will calculate the potential buildup based on weather and natural enemy presence. This tool helps to take the guess work out of your spray decision.</p> <p><strong>Agronomy Guide</strong></p> <p>A new version of Agronomy Guide for Field Crops – Publication 811 is now available in print or for download. For a copy, contact <a href="mailto:ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca">ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca</a> or 1-877-424-1300 or visit<a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/p811toc.html"> ontario.ca/c9uz</a>.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   June 28 – July 4, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><strong><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_T1.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-full wp-image-14011" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_T1.jpg" alt="June 28 – July 4, 2017 Weather data" width="539" height="431" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_T1.jpg 539w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_06_2017_T1-300x240.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 539px) 100vw, 539px" /><br /> </a></strong></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/crop-report-july-6-2017/feed/ 0 2017-07-06 17:13 +00:00 2017-07-06 13:13 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13984 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-29-2017/ Uncategorized Crop Report – June 29, 2017 Diagnosing Early Season Soybean Diseases In Ontario, soybean seedling diseases and root rots are the second most important yield limiting diseases (Figure 1.) and this year is no different. Cool soil temperatures along with early rains in parts of Essex and Niagara resulted in a large number of soybean fields needing to be replanted and the significant rainfall recently has... Thu, 29 Jun 2017 18:51:01 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-29-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Diagnosing Early Season Soybean Diseases</strong></p> <p>In Ontario, soybean seedling diseases and root rots are the second most important yield limiting diseases (Figure 1.) and this year is no different. Cool soil temperatures along with early rains in parts of Essex and Niagara resulted in a large number of soybean fields needing to be replanted and the significant rainfall recently has had a negative impact on soybeans in many areas.</p> <div id="attachment_13985" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f1.jpg"><img class="size-large wp-image-13985" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg" alt="Seedling blight on soybean NEPAC 11 Jun 03" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Seedling blight on soybean<br />NEPAC<br />11 Jun 03</p></div> <p><strong>Figure 1. </strong>Seedlings that die in patches or individually within a row are symptoms of seedling blight diseases.</p> <p>Diagnosing these early season diseases in the field can be difficult since the symptoms of the various seedling blights and root rots are very similar. They can also be easily mistaken for other problems such as pre-emergence herbicide damage (group 14 PPO-inhibitors or group 5- photosynthetic inhibitors). Infected plants are often weak and less vigorous. This week we will discuss four common early soybean seedling diseases and their management.</p> <p><strong>Phytophthora root rot</strong> is caused by the oomycete <em>Phytophthora sojae</em> which has caused major losses in Ontario since the mid-50s. The fungus is prevalent in clay and clay loam soils with numerous pathotypes (formerly races) of the pathogen present in Ontario.  Soybeans are susceptible to Phytophthora at any stage of development and infected plants can occur alone or in patches often with a stem rot char­acterized by chocolate brown/purplish stem lesion which may extend up to the 3<sup>rd</sup> node on older plants. Phytophthora-infected plant roots and lower stems are soft (mushy) and water-soaked causing the plants to wilt and/or be stunted (Figure 2.). Dead plants are easily pulled since lateral roots are absent with a small (rotted) tap root and it is common for the leaves to become brown and shrivelled but do not fall off.</p> <p>Phytophthora root rot occurs across many environments, but is most common in warm soils (&gt;15°C /60°F) and wet conditions.</p> <p><strong><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f2.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-large wp-image-13986" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f2-1024x694.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_29_2017_f2" width="1024" height="694" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f2-1024x694.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f2-300x203.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f2-768x521.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></a>Figure 2. </strong>Seedlings affected by Phytophthora root rot appear scattered in a field, and symptoms resemble other seedling blight diseases.</p> <p><strong>Rhizoctonia root rot</strong> is caused by the fungus <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>. The characteristic symptom of the disease is a reddish-brown lesion which appears at the base of the seedling stem and on roots just below the soil line (Figure 3). They can enlarge into sunken, dry lesions which may girdle the stem resulting in stem breakage.</p> <p><strong><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f3.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-large wp-image-13987" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f3-1024x768.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_29_2017_f3" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f3-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f3-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f3-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></a>Figure 3. </strong>Rhizoctonia seedling blight lesions (reddish-brown) appear on the lower stem and often have a canker-like appearance.</p> <p><strong>Fusarium root rot</strong> can be caused by many <em>Fusarium </em>species which reside in the soil and can infect soybean. Infected plants may be stunted and spindly, and roots may have brown or black discoloration (Figure 4). Affected plants may also have poorly developed root systems. <em>Fusarium </em>species can infect plants under a wide variety of environmental conditions and is often associated with stressed plants.</p> <p><strong><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f4.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-large wp-image-13989" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f4-1024x683.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_29_2017_f4" width="1024" height="683" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f4-1024x683.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f4-300x200.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f4-768x512.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f4.jpg 1196w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></a>Figure 4. </strong>Soybean plants infected with Fusarium root rot have poorly developed roots and dark, discolored lesions on the roots.</p> <p><strong>Pythium seedling blight</strong> is caused by many <em>Pythium </em>species which cause symptoms similar to <em>Phytophthora sojae</em>, which is also an oomycete. <em>Pythium</em> and <em>Phytophthora sp</em> are referred to as &#8220;water moulds&#8221; since the infective spores (zoospores) swim in the water film between soil particles until they find and infect the root tip of many crops. These zoospores are not produced until soils become very wet to flooded but standing water is not needed for zoospore production. Three to four hours of very wet &#8220;damp&#8221; conditions are enough to initiate zoospore production. Pythium seedling blight symptoms include rotten, mushy seeds or seedlings with poorly developed roots (Figure 5).</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f5.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-large wp-image-13990" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f5-1024x769.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_29_2017_f5" width="1024" height="769" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f5-1024x769.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f5-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f5-768x577.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_f5.jpg 1141w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><br /> </a></p> <p><strong>Figure 5.</strong> Pythium seedling blight may kill seedlings before or after emergence.</p> <p>An on-going Graing Farmers of Ontario supported regional project with Midwest US colleagues has shown an increase in some species of Pythium which are more heat tolerant in Ontario and the US which unfortunately means the disease risk from Pythium is lasting longer into the season.</p> <p><strong>What can be done to manage these diseases?</strong></p> <p>The organisms that cause seedling diseases can survive in soil for a long time, and many are capable of infecting other agronomic crops such as alfalfa, corn, sugar beet, and wheat. Therefore, crop rotation may not effectively manage these diseases, and short rotations of crops between soybeans may allow seedling disease organisms to build to high levels in the soil. Resistant and tolerant varieties are available for Phytophthora root rot but no commercial varieties are resistant/tolerant to <em>Pythium, Fusarium</em> or <em>Rhizoctonia</em>.</p> <p>Recent scientific research has shown that some cover crops can be hosts for many pathogens and nematodes. So careful, since cover crops may be a green bridge that can increase seedling pathogens such as <em>Pythium</em> and viruses. For these reasons, wait 10-14 days between cover crop termination and planting crop to decrease these populations and reduce disease risk.</p> <p>Seedling diseases may be more prevalent in no-till or reduced tillage systems since these soils typically warm up slower in the spring and retain more moisture. In these systems, additional practices, such as improving field drainage or fungicide seed treatment, may be needed to manage seedling diseases.</p> <p>Fungicide seed treatments vary in efficacy, and products that control <em>Pythium </em>and <em>Phytophthora </em>diseases (such as ethaboxam, metalaxyl (-M), and mefenoxam) do not affect <em>Rhizoctonia </em>and <em>Fusarium </em>species. Similarly, fungicides that are active against <em>Rhizoctonia </em>and <em>Fusarium </em>have little effect on <em>Pythium </em>and<em> Phytophthora</em>.</p> <p>Additionally, fungicides may be more or less effective depending on the pathogen species. For example, general Fusarium root rot fungicides are not effective against <em>Fusarium virguiliforme</em> which causes sudden death syndrome (SDS). For SDS, use a seed treatment containing fluopyram. Therefore, it is important to accurately diagnose the seedling blights present in a particular field and choose fungicide seed treatments accordingly.</p> <p>For more information on seed treatments see OMAFRA publication 812, Field Crop Protection Guide (<a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html</a>). To learn more about these diseases and others, The Crop Protection Network (CPN) has developed a series of Soybean and Corn Disease Management publications to help growers in Ontario and the U.S. combat emerging disease problems in their fields. Go to (<a href="http://www.cropprotectionnetwork.org/">www.cropprotectionnetwork.org</a>) or the Grain Farmers of Ontario website production resources section (<a href="http://www.gfo.ca/">www.gfo.ca</a>)</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   June 21 – 27, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_T1.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-full wp-image-13991" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_T1.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_29_2017_T1" width="539" height="429" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_T1.jpg 539w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_29_2017_T1-300x239.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 539px) 100vw, 539px" /></a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-29-2017/feed/ 0 2017-06-29 18:51 +00:00 2017-06-29 14:51 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13974 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/leafhopper-alert/ Baute Bug Blog Edible Beans Forages potato leafhopper Leafhopper Alert Despite the wet weather, potato leafhoppers (PLH) are thriving in many areas of the province. Hopperburn is evident in the second crop of alfalfa, though dry bean fields are also at risk, especially once insecticide seed treatments are no longer present in the plants.  Unfortunately, once hopperburn is noticed, yield and quality has already been compromised.  Though PLH-resistant varieties of... Thu, 29 Jun 2017 13:38:31 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/leafhopper-alert/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><div id="attachment_13981" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/leafhopper-alert/potato-leafhopper-adult-baute/" rel="attachment wp-att-13981"><img class="size-medium wp-image-13981" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/potato-leafhopper-adult-Baute-300x219.jpg" alt="Potato leafhopper adult. Photo: T. Baute, OMAFRA" width="300" height="219" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/potato-leafhopper-adult-Baute-300x219.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/potato-leafhopper-adult-Baute-768x562.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/potato-leafhopper-adult-Baute.jpg 975w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Potato leafhopper adult. Photo: T. Baute, OMAFRA</p></div> <p>Despite the wet weather, potato leafhoppers (PLH) are thriving in many areas of the province. Hopperburn is evident in the second crop of alfalfa, though dry bean fields are also at risk, especially once insecticide seed treatments are no longer present in the plants.  Unfortunately, once hopperburn is noticed, yield and quality has already been compromised.  Though PLH-resistant varieties of alfalfa are available, new seedings are still vulnerable, as the glandular hairs are not fully expressed the first year.  Use the conventional thresholds below for first year seedings of these resistant varieties.</p> <div id="attachment_13976" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/leafhopper-alert/plh-burn-alfalfa-quesnel/" rel="attachment wp-att-13976"><img class="wp-image-13976 size-medium" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/PLH-Burn-alfalfa-Quesnel-300x269.png" alt="PLH Burn alfalfa Quesnel" width="300" height="269" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/PLH-Burn-alfalfa-Quesnel-300x269.png 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/PLH-Burn-alfalfa-Quesnel-768x689.png 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/PLH-Burn-alfalfa-Quesnel-1024x919.png 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/PLH-Burn-alfalfa-Quesnel.png 1504w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Hopperburn from potato leafhopper. Photo: G. Quesnel</p></div> <p><em><strong>Scouting in alfalfa</strong>:</em>  Scout every 5–7 days. Take 20 sweeps from five areas of the field. Determine the average number of PLHs per sweep. Next, take 20 alfalfa stems at random and record the average plant height.</p> <p><em><strong>Scouting in dry beans:</strong></em> Walk in an “X” pattern. In 10 areas of the field, pick 10 trifoliate leaves that are newly and fully expanded from the centre of the plant canopy. It is important to note that PLH adults readily fly away when disturbed, which makes them difficult to count on excised leaves.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr style="height: 56px;"> <td style="height: 56px;" colspan="2" width="642"><strong>Thresholds For Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa</strong></td> </tr> <tr style="height: 38px;"> <td style="height: 38px;" width="162">Stem Height<sup>2</sup></td> <td style="height: 38px;" width="480">Number of PLHs per Sweep<sup>1</sup></td> </tr> <tr style="height: 56px;"> <td style="height: 56px;" width="162">9 cm (3.5 in.)</td> <td style="height: 56px;" width="480">0.2 adults</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 56px;"> <td style="height: 56px;" width="162">15 cm (6 in.)</td> <td style="height: 56px;" width="480">0.5 adults</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 56px;"> <td style="height: 56px;" width="162">25 cm (10 in.)</td> <td style="height: 56px;" width="480">1.0 adults or nymph</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 56px;"> <td style="height: 56px;" width="162">36 cm (14 in.)</td> <td style="height: 56px;" width="480">2.0 adults or nymph</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 96px;"> <td style="height: 96px;" colspan="2" width="642"><sup>1  </sup>1 sweep = 180° arc.</p> <p><sup>2  </sup>The taller the alfalfa, the more leafhoppers can be tolerated before control is necessary.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" width="378"><strong>Thresholds For Potato Leafhopper on Dry Edible Beans</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="162">Bean Growth Stage</p> <p>&nbsp;</td> <td width="216"># of Adults or Nymphs</p> <p>per Trifoliate</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="162">unifoliate</td> <td width="216">0.2</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="162">2nd trifoliate</td> <td width="216">0.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="162">4th trifoliate</td> <td width="216">1.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="162">first bloom</td> <td width="216">2.0</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Use a foliar insecticide if thresholds have been reached. A naturally occurring fungal pathogen helps reduce the populations of the PLH under warm, moist conditions but predators and parasites appear to play a minor role in controlling this pest.</p> <p>Insecticide options are listed in the <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812.pdf" target="_blank">Field Crop Protection Guide.</a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/leafhopper-alert/feed/ 0 2017-06-29 13:38 +00:00 2017-06-29 09:38 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13960 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-22-2017/ Uncategorized Crop Report – June 22, 2017 Nitrogen Rate Decisions for Corn Split nitrogen applications in corn not only minimize risk of loss, but can also provide an opportunity to adjust rates based on rainfall, which is a key factor in corn response to nitrogen from year to year. Use decision support tools to help with your rate decision and don’t underestimate the value of long-term management... Thu, 22 Jun 2017 14:52:55 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-22-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Nitrogen Rate Decisions for Corn</strong></p> <p>Split nitrogen applications in corn not only minimize risk of loss, but can also provide an opportunity to adjust rates based on rainfall, which is a key factor in corn response to nitrogen from year to year. Use decision support tools to help with your rate decision and don’t underestimate the value of long-term management practices to reduce in-field variability and improve the soil supply of nitrogen.</p> <p>It is becoming clear that while a hot growing season with ample crop heat units can drive yield potential and response to nitrogen (N), precipitation plays a much more important role. Dr. Nicolas Tremblay of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), recently analyzed data from 51 nitrogen response studies across North America, including Ohio and Quebec. He concluded that what he calls “abundant and well-distributed rainfall” is a major driver of nitrogen response of corn in both fine (e.g. clay loam) and medium textured soils. Abundant and well spread out rainfall in the weeks prior to and following sidedressing had a very strong positive effect on corn’s response to nitrogen. The response was greater in fine-textured soils than medium and light textured soils.</p> <p>Similarly, the University of Guelph’s Dr. Bill Deen and others have found that optimal N rates are affected greatly by growing season rainfall amount, and that profitability depends much more on weather than on the price of corn and fertilizer. Those conclusions are based on a subset of data from the Ontario Corn N Database (213 trials from 1990-2013) and the long-term N response trial at the Elora Research Station since 2009.</p> <p>Taken together, this research suggests that N response of corn is largely driven by yield potential and crop demand. In dry years response to nitrogen is likely to be lower, while in wet years it is higher.</p> <p>This information may not be surprising to you. The question becomes, how can you better determine the best rate of nitrogen?</p> <p>Use the Ontario Corn Nitrogen Calculator. The calculator can be downloaded as an app at www.gfo.ca/apps or as a worksheet from <a href="http://www.gocorn.net/">www.gocorn.net</a>. It integrates decades of data from Ontario Corn N Database to provide a recommendation based on soil type, previous crop, fertilizer and crop price, crop heat units and expected yield.</p> <p>The pre-sidedress nitrogen test (PSNT) can provide an indication of soil N supply as affected by moisture and temperature up until sidedress timing; it can help you tweak your Corn N Calculator rate. The new OMAFRA PSNT table, which can be found in the corn chapter of the <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/811pdforder.htm">new Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</a>, integrates expected yield in its recommendation. Given the cool start to this season, OMAFRA’s annual soil N survey has shown lower than average soil nitrate levels this spring (8 ppm) compared to an average of 11-12 ppm over the past five years.</p> <p>If you split nitrogen applications, there is an added opportunity. According to AAFC research, the rainfall 15 days prior to sidedressing and the forecasted rainfall 15 days following can be a helpful indicator of the moisture pattern for a given season. Until a decision support tool exists, this information cannot give you an exact recommendation; however, it can indicate whether you may want to err on the side of a lower or higher rate than the Corn N Calculator value.</p> <p>How about long-term approaches?</p> <p>We know that N response varies greatly from year-to-year and it may seem that as a grower or advisor, you have little control what the optimal rate will be. There are, however, management practices that can help increase nitrogen use efficiency of the corn crop and increase the supply of soil N.</p> <p>One of the simplest steps is to include winter wheat as a regular part of your crop rotation. Research at Ridgetown has found that similar corn yields are achieved with less applied nitrogen in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation than a corn-soybean rotation. This is likely due to improved organic matter levels and a better soil N supply.</p> <p>Having wheat in rotation also allows for a legume cover crop to be grown, such as red clover. A full stand of red clover provides a consistent N credit of 60-80 lbs/acre to the following corn crop. Other legume cover crops (e.g. hairy vetch, crimson clover) may also provide a nitrogen credit, and though firm numbers aren’t available in Ontario yet, early research shows good promise.</p> <p>Finally, we know that soil organic matter plays a critical role in supplying N to corn. Addressing soil erosion and putting management practices in place to build organic matter are key long-term strategies to achieving a more uniform and consistent soil supply of nitrogen and response to applied N from year to year.</p> <p><span style="color: #000000;font-family: Arial"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_F1.jpg"><img class="size-large wp-image-13961 alignnone" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_F1-1024x768.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_22_2017_F1" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_F1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_F1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_F1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></a></span></p> <p><span style="color: #000000;font-family: Arial">Figure 1. Corn that is ready for a sidedress nitrogen application</span></p> <p><strong>Table 1.   June 14 – 20, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_T1.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-full wp-image-13962" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_T1.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_22_2017_T1" width="535" height="431" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_T1.jpg 535w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_22_2017_T1-300x242.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 535px) 100vw, 535px" /></a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-22-2017/feed/ 0 2017-06-22 14:52 +00:00 2017-06-22 10:52 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13956 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/mt-forest-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-june-13-2017/ Uncategorized Mt. Forest Ag Breakfast Meeting Minutes – June 13, 2017 2017 Mt Forest Ag Breakfast Meeting Notes 2017-jun-13  General While still dealing with some impacts of wet and cooler conditions, almost all the crops are planted. Some areas may not get planted as persistent rains prevent that heavier ground from drying out. Consensus was that things looked way better than the previous meeting two weeks earlier. Beyond this region, there... Thu, 22 Jun 2017 02:36:06 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/mt-forest-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-june-13-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>2017 Mt Forest Ag Breakfast Meeting Notes 2017-jun-13</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>General</strong></p> <p>While still dealing with some impacts of wet and cooler conditions, almost all the crops are planted. Some areas may not get planted as persistent rains prevent that heavier ground from drying out. Consensus was that things looked way better than the previous meeting two weeks earlier. Beyond this region, there are actually areas that are in need of rain, ie south of 401 in the London area etc.</p> <p>There is some concern among the group that the continued wet/cool weather is hiding a lot of “ills” from planting time that if the weather turns dry are going to become very visible. Not much that can be done, but it will be interesting to compare fields that were worked too wet, or too much prior to planting verses some of these planted notill into dead or green cover crops. A significant number of acres of these are scattered around the countryside despite the problems associated with this seeding method in last years dry conditions.</p> <p>Wind, Wind, Wind. This has been a definite factor this spring. The days when the ground is fit seem to be the windiest too. A fair amount of spraying has occurred on days not suitable based on wind speed.</p> <p><strong>Crop Insurance</strong></p> <p>Some areas have continued to be too wet to “turn a wheel” and those producers and their suppliers/advisors are getting frustrated. There will be “unseeded acre” claims this year but still not sure of how much acreage will be impacted.</p> <p>Final acreage reporting is June 30<sup>th</sup>, but don’t wait till the last minute. Report online at <a href="http://www.agricorp.com">www.agricorp.com</a> .</p> <p>While hindsight is 20/20 forage excessive rainfall benefit would have paid this year for forages. This is something to keep in mind for the future.</p> <p><strong>Winter Wheat</strong></p> <p>The wheat crop is a bright light this season. Everyone seems pleased. Despite the threat from the weather, all seems to be managing along well. There continues to be some Stripe Rust concerns, especially where a T1 or 2 application was not made. Further information on managing Stripe Rust and Fusarium Head blight (FHB) are available at:</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/05/wheat-fungicide-decision-tree-for-fusarium-head-blight-and-stripe-rust/">http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/05/wheat-fungicide-decision-tree-for-fusarium-head-blight-and-stripe-rust/</a></p> <p>Continued emergence of new stripe rust infected fields is having the recommendation lean to the importance of a second application.</p> <p>Much of the crop has received a fungicide application for preventing FHB. People had some difficulty getting timely applications made because of both the weather and the presence of two distinct “crops” across the province based on the two significant timelines of planting last fall. Within the planting windows the uniformity of head emergence appeared to be good but just had to watch those two timings for optimizing application. Congratulations as people seem to be finally getting the point that nozzle selection for head coverage are not the same as for foliar treatments. The right decisions are being made, which increases the efficacy of the products greatly and the value for dollars spent.</p> <p><strong>Spring Grains</strong></p> <p>Some reports of cereal leaf beetle in Perth County. There hasn’t been any  armyworm reported yet, but with the hay harvest happening, they may be on the move so should be watched for.</p> <p><strong>Soybeans</strong></p> <p>Most if not all of the crop is in. Stands are good considering the weather. While stand populations tend to be on the lower side of the intended, they seem to be rather uniform and no one is talking about ripping them up and starting again. Stand issues are a function of weather and some compromised seed vigor based on the conditions under which last years seed developed and the large size of seed that may not have planted as expected if growers didn’t calibrate their equipment. Populations are averaging about 120,000. Some fields are spotty, but they are the minority. Agricorp has had some reseeding because of crusting or seed corn maggot. Hot spots are New Dundee, Moorefield, Teviotdale. In some cases there is enough pressure that the seed treatments are struggling to keep up with the infestation. Since bugs have to take a bite of the roots to get a lethal does of insecticide, a very high insect population means the plants can be injured do to this single feeding event by each grub. Some significant insect issues across soybean fields. This has led to some replants, where it has been hard to source seed.</p> <p>Some fields didn’t get burndown and pre treatments. Where glyphosate resistant fleabane is present this could be problematic, especially in IP beans. At the previous meeting there was the recommendation that fields known to have resistant fleabane and not covered with an appropriate pre emergence weed control program should be reseeded and sprayed correctly. With the season the way it has been people did not want to do that. Talk was that there is considerably more resistant fleabane in the area this year than last. Some has been tested and is showing both glyphosate and group 2 resistance.  This may lead to some significant weed issues over the remainder of the season.  Going to a post emergence program relying on Cleansweep, people are going to have to stay on top of the weed stages. The timing is critical for achieving control and the earlier the better. The usual recommendation is 21-28 days after application and the window should likely be on the earlier end of that.</p> <p>Later planting may push harvest back which is concerning those that are planning wheat for this fall. Planting date is critical, but like we found this spring, soil conditions at planting are the key to high yield potential.</p> <p><strong>Corn</strong></p> <p>On the corn front, the three main issues coming along are western bean cutworm, fungicides and N application where planting proceeded intended worked in N fertilizer.  The numbers for PSNT on nitrogen are lower than normal, but not really lower than expected given the cool wet conditions.  Tables 1 and 2 compare 2017 and 2016 numbers from the GFO Soil N Sentinel Project.</p> <p><strong>Table1. 2017 Soil N Test from Sentinel </strong></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2017-Soil-N-Test.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-medium wp-image-13955" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2017-Soil-N-Test-300x257.jpg" alt="2017 Soil N Test" width="300" height="257" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2017-Soil-N-Test-300x257.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2017-Soil-N-Test-768x657.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2017-Soil-N-Test.jpg 828w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Table2. 2016 Soil N Test from Sentinel N Field Sit</strong><strong>es</strong></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2016-Soil-N-Test.jpg"><img class="alignleft size-medium wp-image-13954" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2016-Soil-N-Test-300x242.jpg" alt="2016 Soil N Test" width="300" height="242" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2016-Soil-N-Test-300x242.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2016-Soil-N-Test-768x619.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2016-Soil-N-Test.jpg 892w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Vomitoxin (VOM)  was a big issue last fall in terms of worry and there were some hotspots so people are concerned again, or at least talking like they are. There is some indication that feeding from western bean cutworm leads to a greater potential for VOM. This may lead to growers electing for a fungicide/insecticide combination coming up shortly. Further management info on this pest at:</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WBC-Scouting-and-Management-2017-Corn-Final-1.pdf">http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WBC-Scouting-and-Management-2017-Corn-Final-1.pdf</a></p> <p>Tracking of western bean cutworm can be followed at:</p> <p><a href="http://www.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=a9e6a076b6cf4ff281cdff460d3ffdad&amp;extent=-9583093.8975,4846692.5603,-8017663.5582,5969399.6318,102100">http://www.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=a9e6a076b6cf4ff281cdff460d3ffdad&amp;extent=-9583093.8975,4846692.5603,-8017663.5582,5969399.6318,102100</a></p> <p>Some incidence of seed corn maggot and grubs have lead to some replants but still rather low. Slugs have been quite obvious with all the seeding into fields with lots of live or dead crop residue, but despite the weather the corn is for the most part keeping ahead of them.</p> <p>While weed control is generally good, some fields are experiencing some weed break throughs on pre programs. Be watchful of these fields and be prepared to act. Keep in mind that weeds that emerge after the crop are much less likely to cause yield impacts. However, this is a function of the species, density and weather conditions that follow.</p> <p>Good stands with earlier planting date under good soil conditions were to the 6-8 leaf stage and moving quickly.</p> <p><strong>Forages</strong></p> <p>A great deal of hay came off quickly. Indication is good quality and okay yields, especially considering what people were expecting. Alfalfa weevil  populations continue to be a problem in some regions. Scouting is important. Infestations might reach threshold before the next cutting date.</p> <p><strong>Canola</strong></p> <p><strong>Edible Beans</strong></p> <p>A large portion of the crop got planted over the weekend of June 10-11. For the most part the field conditions were in good shape for planting.</p> <p>A good resource for scouting and management of western bean cutworm in edible beans is available at:</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WBC-2017-Dry-Bean-Infosheet.pdf">http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/WBC-2017-Dry-Bean-Infosheet.pdf</a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/mt-forest-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-june-13-2017/feed/ 0 2017-06-22 02:36 +00:00 2017-06-21 22:36 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13944 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/winchester-breakfast-meeting-june-20-2017/ Ag Business Minutes Winchester Breakfast Meeting – June 20, 2017 Weather Overnight rainfall ranged from 1 to 10 ml in the region. From the 1st of May, the area has accumulated about 825 Crop Heat Units (CHU), which is only about 25 CHU behind normal. Heat this last week has brought us closer to normal. Long range forecast is for cooler temperatures, so less CHU accumulation in the coming weeks.... Tue, 20 Jun 2017 19:22:39 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/winchester-breakfast-meeting-june-20-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Weather </strong></p> <p>Overnight rainfall ranged from 1 to 10 ml in the region. From the 1<sup>st</sup> of May, the area has accumulated about 825 Crop Heat Units (CHU), which is only about 25 CHU behind normal. Heat this last week has brought us closer to normal. Long range forecast is for cooler temperatures, so less CHU accumulation in the coming weeks. Rainfall is still almost double the normal rainfall since May 1<sup>st</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Forages </strong></p> <p>About 80% of the early 1<sup>st</sup> cut alfalfa has been harvested. Good yields and quality have been reported. Some growers reporting their first cut this year is the same amount they got off in all cuts combines last year. The odd sign going up with hay for sale is a good indication that growers are having good yields.</p> <p><strong>Corn</strong></p> <p>In the Napanee, not as much corn was planted as intended. These acres have being switched to soybeans. Some still soybeans yet to be planted. Nitrogen soil tests are coming back with lower nitrate levels for this point in the year as compared to the same time last year. Depending on this year’s yield potential and current nitrogen rates, growers may need to increase by an additional 30 pounds of nitrogen per acre. About 25% of the side-dress nitrogen is done. Herbicides, especially pre-emerge sprays are working well. Still the odd field that was left for a post-emerge herbicide program and due to wet soil conditions, has not been sprayed yet. Fields planted wet with seed slot open are a danger for phenoxy type herbicides if that herbicide gets into that seed slot. This year may be a good year to be as safe as possible with recommendations in terms of leaf stage and when to apply. Very little reports of cutworm, the odd one found. Some in a few fields near Lanark, but not significant enough for replant.</p> <p><strong>Soybeans </strong></p> <p>Still some to be planted, but mostly done. Soybeans planted on the May 28 weekend are struggling as soil conditions were not in good shape. Some soybeans planted from May 16 to 20, needed to be replanted due to planting to heavy rains. Lots of inconsistency, soil structure playing a role. Tillage also showing a big difference. ‘Less is more’ this year; those that no-tilled or did very little tillage have far better stands. Agricorp had 100 damage reports as of this past Friday; some claimed as unseeded acres and some claims for replanting due to crusting, wet soil, etc. Many growers were not looking for the poor emergence and so damage reports came in late for reseeding. Overall, less than 5% of the soybean acres had to be replanted, mainly in low, wet areas of the field. Final soybeans stands population are about 124,000 plants per acre. Dicamba drift has been reported in some US states resulting in talk about a ban of applying dicamba products at certain times of the year. This is a reminder for us to be careful with dicamba product applications. Some growers are deferring to other herbicide options.</p> <p><strong>Winter wheat </strong></p> <p>Most of the fusarium head blight fungicides were applied at the correct stage of the wheat just before the rain started on the weekend. Cereal leaf beetles/larvae showing up.</p> <p><strong>Spring Cereals</strong></p> <p>April planted spring wheat will likely be heading in about 7 to 10 days. Foliar fungicides being applied this week. Aphids being found in spring wheat, so potential for barley yellow dwarf virus to occur. A few fields have been sprayed. Aphids pressure in some fields. The Aphid threshold prior to the heading stage is 12 to 15 cereal aphids per stem and up to 50 aphids per head once headed. At this point, no army worm pressure found in the area. Only pocket has been reported south of Montreal area.</p> <p><strong>Edible beans </strong></p> <p>Only a small number of intended edible bean acres in the Winchester area have been planted. Some still to be planted in Napanee area.</p> <p><strong>Market update</strong></p> <p>The commodity markets seem to be trading weather and crop conditions. December corn has dropped 15 cents in the past week between a combination of fund shorts being squared away and timely rains over some of the Corn Belt. Despite the drop in futures our local basis values are holding fairly strong. The US crop is rated at 67% good to excellent vs 75% last year. November soybeans have lost some of their momentum and our high Canadian dollar at $0.7541 to the US dollar (CAD/USD) has eaten away at our basis values. Both Kansas and Chicago wheat markets are pushing new highs providing some excellent wheat prices to take advantage of. We will look towards the June 30<sup>th</sup> USDA report to provide some insight on further price direction.</p> <p><strong>Agricorp </strong></p> <p>Soybeans planting deadline is June 30<sup>th</sup>. After June 30<sup>th,</sup> growers can seed a cover crop.</p> <p><strong>Winchester Research Station</strong></p> <p>Plot trials are all planted and being sprayed. Drainage has been working well, everything has emerged. A few tours booked through the summer. Dundas Soil &amp; Crop Improvement Association – Summer Tour on August 2<sup>nd</sup>, 2017. If others wish a tour of the Winchester Research Station, contact Holly Byker at <a href="mailto:hbyker@uoguelph.ca">hbyker@uoguelph.ca</a>.</p> <p><strong>Upcoming Field Days:</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Southwest Crop Diagnostic Days</em></strong> &#8211; July 5-6 (Ridgetown College) &#8211; diagnosticdays.ca</p> <p><strong><em>FarmSmart Expo</em></strong> &#8211; July 13<sup>TH</sup> (Elora Research Station) &#8211; farmsmartconference.com</p> <p><strong><em>Eastern Ontario Crop Diagnostic Day</em></strong> &#8211; July 19<sup>TH</sup> (Winchester Research Station) &#8211;    eocdd.eastontcropconference.ca</p> <h4><em>Canola Crop Tour</em> &#8211; July 14<sup>TH</sup> &#8211; 10 am to 3 pm, (Barclay Dick &amp; Sons Farm Supply, 4139 AB Highway 60, Douglas) &#8211; <a href="https://www.ontariocanolagrowers.ca/">https://www.ontariocanolagrowers.ca/</a></h4> <p><strong><em>Soil Management Day</em></strong><em> – </em>August 10, 2017 &#8211; Vernon, Ontario. <em>NEW!</em></p> <p><strong><em>NEW</em></strong><strong> &#8211; Agronomy Guide for Field Crops &#8211; Publication 811 &#8211; </strong><a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/811pdforder.htm#order">How to Order</a> A pdf version is available. <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/811pdforder.htm">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/811pdforder.htm</a></p> <p><em>Thank you to Stephanie Nanne, P.T. Sullivan Agro for taking notes for this morning’s meeting. </em></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/winchester-breakfast-meeting-june-20-2017/feed/ 0 2017-06-20 19:22 +00:00 2017-06-20 15:22 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13938 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/soybean-aphids-are-here-but-dont-panic/ Baute Bug Blog Soybean soybean aphid threshold soybean aphids V stages Soybean aphids are here…but don’t panic It has been a few years since soybean aphids have been noticed in fields this early in the season. This is in part, because many fields were treated with insecticide seed treatments and were assumed to be protecting the crop early in the season.  However, very recently published research across several US states has shown that the insecticide seed treatment... Tue, 20 Jun 2017 17:05:38 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/soybean-aphids-are-here-but-dont-panic/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><div id="attachment_13939" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/soybean-aphids-are-here-but-dont-panic/dscn0965/" rel="attachment wp-att-13939"><img class="wp-image-13939 size-medium" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/DSCN0965-300x225.jpg" alt="DSCN0965" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/DSCN0965-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/DSCN0965-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/DSCN0965-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Soybean aphids on early V stage soybeans. T. Baute, OMAFRA</p></div> <p>It has been a few years since soybean aphids have been noticed in fields this early in the season. This is in part, because many fields were treated with insecticide seed treatments and were assumed to be protecting the crop early in the season.  However, <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.4602/abstract;jsessionid=DAE98171B301CB284C2CCD978A7D1FA3.f03t02" target="_blank">very recently published research across several US states</a> has shown that the insecticide seed treatment only lasts in the plant for two weeks or so after planting and soon becomes equivalent to fungicide only treated plants in terms of providing no protection from aphids. This research also confirms that the IPM approach of a well-timed foliar insecticide at threshold in the R1 to R5 stages has greatest yield response.</p> <p>So bottom line is to not panic when you first find soybean aphids this time of year.  It is normal to find them colonizing soybean fields in the early V stages, especially in early planted fields or fields close to buckthorn. Soybean aphids initially start to colonize in pockets of early planted fields. Several plants in these pockets can have hundreds, even thousands of aphids on them at first.  Walk a few meters away from these pockets and you won’t find any aphids.  Once the aphids start to get crowded on the plants in these pockets, they produce aphids with wings so they can spread out some more, colonizing new plants in the field or leave that field to enter a new one. Aphid counts per plant then change from several hundred per plant in small pockets in the field, to only a few per plant on more plants across the field.  This continues to occur, particularly when the plants are still in their V stages.  During this time, natural enemies start to notice their presence and will start to feed on these new colonies. Spraying too early when the colonies have just started will delay natural enemy populations from building up and responding to these aphids.  <strong>Insecticide trials have not been able to show any yield response to sprays done on these V stage infestations.</strong> <strong> In fact, a spray application during the V stages can actually lead to problems as it easily wipes out the natural enemies that are trying to do the work for you. This results in aphids rebounding quickly and potentially requiring a second spray again once the crop does reach the R stages.<br /> </strong></p> <p><strong>A reminder that the soybean aphid threshold is set for during the R1 to R5 stage of soybeans when  research found the an insecticide application is required once 80% of the plants in the field have at least 250 aphids per plant and it is apparent that the population is on the increase.</strong>  This threshold gives an<strong> approximate 7–10-day lead time</strong> before the aphids would reach the economic injury level, where cost of control is equal to yield loss. Experience has shown that natural enemies can keep the aphid population fluctuating  around the 250 aphid threshold.  This fluctuation means they are working hard for you, trying to take down the aphid population. Only when you see that the aphid populations continue to rise instead of fluctuate, do you know that the natural enemies are not plentiful enough to keep up.</p> <p>More aphids per plant are needed once soybeans are in the R6 stage. Beyond the R6 stage, economic return from any insecticide application is not likely. In good growing conditions when plants are not stressed and are lush, waiting until the aphids are closer to the economic injury level of 600 aphids per plant is possible.  In years when plants are stressed and struggling to close the canopy, staying closer to the economic threshold of 250 aphids per plant is advised.</p> <p>The Aphid Advisor (<a href="http://www.aphidapp.com">www.aphidapp.com</a>) is a helpful tool to use when scouting for soybean aphid here in Ontario. Developed by U of Guelph, based on field research conducted in Ontario, it determines if there are enough natural enemies to keep aphid populations in check or if an insecticide application may be needed. Just enter the number of aphids and natural enemies present during R1 to R5 and the app will calculate the potential buildup based on weather and natural enemy presence.  Helps to take the guess work out of your spray decision.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/soybean-aphids-are-here-but-dont-panic/feed/ 0 2017-06-20 17:05 +00:00 2017-06-20 13:05 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13933 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-june-14-2017-final-meeting/ Uncategorized Simcoe Ag Breakfast Meeting – June 14, 2017 – Final Meeting Winter Wheat Winter wheat has headed, however some areas are behind in terms of growth stage. On the south shore of Lake Ontario where cool winds are more frequent, wheat is up to 2 weeks behind other areas of the region. A comment was made that while a lot of wheat is quite variable, tiled ground looks somewhat better. Essentially... Mon, 19 Jun 2017 14:01:51 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-june-14-2017-final-meeting/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>Winter Wheat</p> <p>Winter wheat has headed, however some areas are behind in terms of growth stage. On the south shore of Lake Ontario where cool winds are more frequent, wheat is up to 2 weeks behind other areas of the region. A comment was made that while a lot of wheat is quite variable, tiled ground looks somewhat better.</p> <p>Essentially all intended fungicide applications have been completed in winter wheat in the region. Some acres did not receive a fungicide to control stripe rust and are suffering, and it is expected those acres may lose 30 to 40 bu/ac.</p> <p>Armyworm is being found in some fields, and scouts are watching for the pest. But up to the time of the meeting there were very few, if any, cases where the armyworm had reached threshold. Remember to keep water volumes high if spraying for armyworm for improved efficacy; 20 gallons at minimum.</p> <p>Soybean</p> <p>Soybean planting was near completion at the time of the meeting, with approximately 10% left to plant. Planting conditions now are ideal, and if the rain holds off a few days more there should not be any acres left unseeded. Some replanting has occurred, and some have gone back into soybean fields to add more seed to thin stands.  Agronomists with experience on the clay grounds of the region commented that soybean stands of about 120,000 plants may be sufficient in some cases, but if many of the plants leafed out underground, are looking yellow, and/or have some insect damage on tough clay conditions it may be better to replant. Stressed out soybean plants may not have much vigour during vegetative growth. Consider the health of the existing plants as well as the population when making a decision.</p> <p>There continues to be discussion about the potential for mistakes and drift issues under the Xtend system. Ensure you have taken in all aspects of the agronomics and precautions under the system. As a reminder, sprayers need to be outfitted with the proper nozzles to reduce drift. And &#8211; getting back to basics – regular glyphosate tolerant beans will not emerge if the Xtend burndown was applied pre-plant.</p> <p>Corn</p> <p>The past week or more was spent planting as well as replanting. Up to 75% of intended corn acres have been planted, and by June 12 most had stopped planting corn. In many areas corn planted May 18-24<sup>th</sup> looks tough; there was a lot of rain through that period. Replanting was occurring last week, particularly in fields that may have initially been worked too wet. Corn planted in the past week or so is looking healthier than the corn planted earlier. Corn seed rotted in areas with standing water. It was stated that this year the Niagara peninsula saw the most corn replanting the group could remember, since sometime in the late 80’s. Some farmers chose to replant first then spray off the emerged corn.</p> <p>Farmers have had questions about the safety of herbicide applications in the past couple weeks, and have seen some herbicide flash after application. If the crop is stressed it may show some damage. After the 4 leaf stage the corn cuticle starts to thicken, but cloudy days leading up to the hot, sunny conditions of last week may have left the cuticle somewhat thin. It may have been better to wait a few days, or to spray in the early morning or evening, than to apply herbicides in very hot conditions (e.g. 30° C). Higher water volumes may also buffer potential damage, as well as provide superior coverage of weeds.</p> <p>For both corn and soybeans, seed corn maggot has been observed, particularly on untreated seed. Sandy loam soils seem to have the most seed corn maggot issues. Both crops are subject to multiple stresses, and grubs and wireworms are also contributing to thin stands. In some fields, particularly where herbicide flash is visible on the plants, it is difficult to know the primary issue on poor germination and poor plant health; some feel insects are the bigger part of the problem.</p> <p>Also, both crops require herbicide re-sprays in some fields. Early burndown treatments and late planting has left many fields looking weedy. And some fields sprayed at the end of May might not have had enough rain for good activity of the herbicides. Grass escapes seem to be common.</p> <p>This was the last meeting for the Simcoe group. Best of luck with the rest of the season, and thanks to everyone who contributed and generously covered the cost of breakfasts.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-june-14-2017-final-meeting/feed/ 0 2017-06-19 14:01 +00:00 2017-06-19 10:01 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13923 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/swede-midge-advisory-consider-canola-growth-stage/ Canola swede midge Swede Midge Advisory – Consider Canola Growth Stage Authored by: Tracey Baute, Meghan Moran, OMAFRA and Dr. Rebecca Hallett, University of Guelph Swede midge populations are high this year while the canola crop is still quite young.  Despite trap captures already reaching the accumulated trap threshold of 20 midges total, there are a few things to consider before deciding to spraying this early: Trap threshold – The recommendation... Thu, 15 Jun 2017 22:20:09 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/swede-midge-advisory-consider-canola-growth-stage/#respond Meghan Moran <div class="pf-content"><p><em>Authored by: Tracey Baute, Meghan Moran, OMAFRA and Dr. Rebecca Hallett, University of Guelph</em></p> <p>Swede midge populations are high this year while the canola crop is still quite young.  Despite trap captures already reaching the accumulated trap threshold of 20 midges total, there are a few things to consider before deciding to spraying this early:</p> <ol> <li><strong> Trap threshold</strong> – The recommendation that the first spray be made after a total of 20 midges accumulated across all traps in a field was set based on historical field data, looking at which fields experienced damage and which ones did not. Fields that had midge trap counts accumulating in the 100s of midges up to the 5-leaf stage had much more injury than those fields that had traps only accumulating 20 or 30 or even 50 midges per day. So the threshold for applying the first spray was set conservatively at a total capture of 20 midges with counts beginning at the first leaf stage. After you have made your first spray, you should move to the action threshold of 5 midges/trap/day with approximately 7 days between insecticide applications.</li> <li><strong> Crop stage</strong> – More plant injury is experienced when there are buds starting to form on the plants. So it is likely more important to protect the plants in the 5- or 6-leaf stage or later when there are tiny buds starting to form. That said, if the field is accumulating 100s of midges per trap per day in early vegetative stages (3-4-leaf stage), then an application may be warranted. At early growth stages a border spray may be sufficient, since swede midge populations are higher along the field boundaries.</li> <li><strong> Other pests </strong>– If the field in question also has flea beetle populations no longer being knocked down by seed treatment, then there is more reason to apply the insecticide early. If there is flea beetle present, then Matador is the recommended product so that both flea beetles and midge are controlled.</li> <li><strong> Product Requirements </strong>– If you do spray, keep in mind that both Matador and Coragen can each only be applied 3 times per season. There may be additional applications required for midge or other pests so consider the economics of spraying this early. Rotating between these two products is recommended to reduce the risk of resistance. Note that Coragen cannot be applied to fields within 60 days of planting if Lumiderm or Fortenza seed treatment was used. So spraying Matador early may hinder your ability to rotate to Coragen for the next application if it is still within 60 days of planting.</li> <li><strong> Second application timing</strong> – It is most critical to protect the early buds. If only one application can be afforded, stick to applying a product between the 5-leaf stage and bud initiation if trap thresholds are reached. If you apply a product when the crop is in the 2-3-leaf stage, then a second application may still be required a week later (if traps reach the threshold of 5 adults/trap/day) to protect the later vegetative stages when bud initiation is occurring. Label restrictions state that Coragen can be applied once every 5 days, Matador can be applied once every 7 days.</li> </ol> <p>For more information on swede midge and management, refer to the swede midge infosheet at:</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Swede-Midge-Infosheet-Final-2016.pdf">http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Swede-Midge-Infosheet-Final-2016.pdf</a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/swede-midge-advisory-consider-canola-growth-stage/feed/ 0 2017-06-15 22:20 +00:00 2017-06-15 18:20 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13919 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/2017-ridgetown-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-june-13-2017/ Ag Business Minutes 2017 Ridgetown Ag Breakfast Meeting Minutes – June 13, 2017 Breakfast Sponsor: Thanks from the group to “Michigan Sugar – Wayne Martin” Quotes of the week – It was a stellar morning for great quotes.  Here is a selection of some of the ones we can remember! “The coffee shop should only be drive-thru in the spring – Al McCallum “Good thing about mistakes is that they only last a... Thu, 15 Jun 2017 19:09:22 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/2017-ridgetown-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-june-13-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>Breakfast Sponsor: Thanks from the group to “Michigan Sugar – Wayne Martin”</p> <p>Quotes of the week – It was a stellar morning for great quotes.  Here is a selection of some of the ones we can remember!</p> <p>“The coffee shop should only be drive-thru in the spring – Al McCallum</p> <p>“Good thing about mistakes is that they only last a year” – Al McCallum</p> <p>“My corn is welded in the ground” from a grower as told by Roger Bourassa in reference to planting corn into unfit conditions.</p> <p><strong>Synopsis</strong>: Although we had a wet spring many areas could use a rain particularly in fields that have been planted in the last two weeks.  Corn planting is complete with the majority of the crop now between 7- to 8 leaf stage.  Initial soybean planting is complete with most of the crop at the 1<sup>st</sup> trifoliate stage.  There have been a number of replants due to crusting, heavy rainfall events just after planting and herbicide injury.  Bean leaf beetle and seed corn maggot have been a concern in a number of fields.  T3 fungicide applications have now wrapped up in winter wheat.  Stripe rust continues to be an issue in some fields.  Edible bean planting is now 95% complete with the remainder expected to be planted this week.  The tomato and sugerbeet crops continue to look good with pea harvest expected to begin this weekend.</p> <p><strong>Corn:</strong> There have been minimal corn replants to date.  Corn that was planted earlier into ideal conditions appears to be thriving in this heat while fields that were planted two weeks ago are suffering due to lack of moisture.  The majority of the crop in the area is at the 5-8 leaf.  There are some challenges with compaction and uneven stands in fields that were planted in unfit conditions.  There have also been reports of fields having some lower populations due to cold inhibition.  Seeds in these fields took on cold water and then were not able to develop shoots.  This symptomology appears to be variety specific.  Some rootless corn syndrome has been observed (Alvinston/Noth Kent) for some hybrids due to shallow planting and the early saturated soil conditions. There has been an uptake in sulphur applications in corn this year as sulphur deficiency symptoms are appearing in many fields especially in fields that received all their nitrogen up front.  The warm weather is expected to help elude some of this deficiency.</p> <p>The labs continue to report lower soil nitrate levels compared to previous years.  OMAFRA Field Crop staff been tracking soil nitrate levels across the province and have found similar results.  Results will be posted at Weathercentral.ca under “Corn – GFO Nitrogen Research” (<a href="http://bit.ly/1rd6z3F">http://bit.ly/1rd6z3F</a>) as they are made available.  Where soil nitrate levels have been found to be low, growers are putting on 20-30 lbs more nitrogen.  About 50% of sidedressing in the area is now complete.  There has been an increased uptake in 28% at side dressing as growers are seeing a benefit to splitting their nitrogen.</p> <p><strong>Soybeans:</strong>  Soybeans in the area are at the 1<sup>st</sup> trifoliate stage.  There have been a number of replants in some areas.  Replants were reported in the Dresden area due to heavy rainfall events right after planting.  In Essex it is estimated that 20-25% of soybeans were replanted due to crusting.  There are also reports of Group 14 herbicide injury in some fields where the roots appear to be dampened off or have a rotting appearance.  There have also been reports of injury in fields that received 2,4-D 10 days prior to planting.</p> <p><strong>Winter Wheat:</strong>  Fungicide applications for fusarium head blight have wrapped up in the area.  There continues to be heavy stripe rust pressure in many areas, particularly in fields with susceptible varieties that did not receive a fungicide application this year.  Some of the moderately resistant varieties are also showing increased pressure due to the disease load.  If you are looking to apply a fungicide to control stripe rust at this time follow the label and be aware of any pre-harvest interval restrictions.  Make sure proper precautions are taken to ensure there is no tank contamination when applying fungicides at heading.  A field was reported to have herbicide injury after a fungicide was applied at heading even after it was triple rinsed.  A number of fields have been confirmed with wheat streak mosaic virus and barley yellow dwarf virus.  Remember fungicides do not provide “virus” control.   Best management practices for these diseases include selecting resistant varieties, avoid planting early and a good crop rotation.  No-till planted wheat continues to show a huge advantage over conventional wheat.  The firmness of the ground in no-till fields this spring brought a lot more functionality to carry the sprayer allowing for more timely nitrogen and fungicide applications.  It was reported that a field with severe leaf burn on the flag leaf a few weeks ago has now grown out and recovered.  Clover stands in winter wheat fields are looking excellent.</p> <p><strong>Horticulture Crops:</strong>  Overall the sugarbeet crop looks good with average yields expected.  Some fields are in need of moisture, particularly those that were planted in the last two weeks where the dry weather has created some emergence challenges.  Some early seedling diseases have been reported reducing stand counts due to Aphanomyces, Fusarium, Pythium and Rhozoctonia.  This may be the result of poor rotation and compaction.  A four year crop rotation is more likely to reduce impact from disease than a three year rotation.  Any replants must be completed by June 15<sup>th</sup>.  Tomato planting is now complete and in good shape.  Twin rows are beginning to fill in with fungicide applications expected to begin in about a week in some fields.  The warm weather is helping bring out the crop where dual injury was previously reported.  The warm weather is a challenge for peas but pea harvest is expected to begin this weekend.  Growers are reminded to submit spray records for their crops when requested.</p> <p><strong>Dry Beans:</strong> 95% of the edible bean crop is now planted with beans expected to emerge in the next 4-5 days.  A large percentage of the acreage was planted in a condensed window over the last week.  The crop is expected to flower and pod fill at the same time so there are some concerns about hot and dry weather in the first week of August.  Pre-plant/emerge herbicides were applied with no rainfall so there may be a need to get the rotary hoe out to incorporate the herbicides.  With some of the heavy leafhopper pressure reported in alfalfa stands, growers should keep an eye out for them in their edible bean fields now that the hay crop has been cut.  The edible bean crop in North Dakota is looking great but is looking poor in Michigan.</p> <p><strong>Weed Control:</strong> Pre emergence herbicides appear to be working well; however, post emergence herbicides that have recently been applied are in need of rain.  With increased use of conventional herbicides, growers are reminded to take the time to clean out their sprayers to avoid tank contamination and to mix properly to avoid reduced efficacy. It is also important to remember mixing sequence especially with conventional chemistries to avoid “gum ups”. Some corn fields planted in late April that did not receive a herbicide right away are dealing with large weeds.  There is heavy Canada fleabane pressure in soybean fields that did not receive a preplant herbicide.  As a result there continues to be growers that are ripping up their RR soybeans and replacing them with Xtend soybeans for fleabane control.  In some cases it is entire fields and in others they are replanting patches where fleabane is an issue.  Results from fall glyphosate burndowns have been impressive as has fall weed control in wheat. Be careful to note which fields have Xtend soybeans vs those without (report of a misapplication). Dow AgroSciences has received import approval (Safety Certificate) from China, which means they are in a position to launch Enlist Corn for 2018</p> <p><strong>Insects:</strong> Insect feeding has been minimal where seed treatments have been applied.  There are concerns about bean leaf beetle feeding in soybeans, particularly in fields with high residue.  Calls continue to come in regarding grub feeding in corn; however, it is expected that this pest will disappear with the hot weather.  There were reports of black cutworm feeding in corn but the impact from feeding has been minimal to date. Armyworm has been found in the Niagara &amp; Haldimand regions in winter wheat fields but very few fields have reached thresholds to date.  Western bean cutworm traps are being set up across the province for monitoring.  Anyone interested in setting up a trap can contact Tracey Baute (tracey.baute@ontario.ca).  Western bean cutworm pod feeding will also be monitored in edible beans this year.</p> <p><strong>Cover crops:</strong>  A field was found to have plugged tiles from cereal rye roots.  Annual ryegrass root bulbs, volunteer sunflowers and buckwheat have also been a challenge this spring.  Growers are encouraged to take them out earlier to avoid some of these issues.</p> <p><strong>Upcoming Events</strong></p> <p>Southwest Crop Diagnostic Days (University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus) July 5 or 6, 2017</p> <p>FarmSmart Expo 2017 (University of Guelph, Elora Research Station) – July 13, 2017</p> <p>Eastern Crops Day (U. of G., Winchester Research Farm) – July 19, 2017</p> <p>Summit on Canadian Soil Health 2017 – August 22 &amp; 23, Guelph</p> <p>Southwest Agricultural Conference – January 3 &amp; 4, 2018</p> <p>Peter Sikkema and Darren Robinson will be offering the “2017 Weed Science Short Course” during the week of October 16-20, 2017 in London, ON. If you are interested, please contact Peter Sikkema at psikkema@uoguelph.ca.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/2017-ridgetown-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-june-13-2017/feed/ 0 2017-06-15 19:09 +00:00 2017-06-15 15:09 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13913 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-15-2017/ Uncategorized Crop Report – June 15, 2017 Cereals A large majority of the winter wheat crop has progressed beyond the post-flowering stage, and spraying for Fusarium Head Blight protection has been completed in many regions. Stripe rust is reported to be advancing in some areas in fields that did not receive a fungicide application.  Significant yield loss can occur in cases where disease pressure is very high.... Thu, 15 Jun 2017 15:46:27 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-15-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Cereals</strong></p> <p>A large majority of the winter wheat crop has progressed beyond the post-flowering stage, and spraying for Fusarium Head Blight protection has been completed in many regions. Stripe rust is reported to be advancing in some areas in fields that did not receive a fungicide application.  Significant yield loss can occur in cases where disease pressure is very high.  Fields that received a T1 or T2 herbicide application are reported to be still holding disease pressure back well.  True Armyworm has been observed in some fields, but not at levels that have required control.  Growers are encouraged to watch for head clipping feeding. Clover stands in winter wheat look excellent.</p> <p><strong>Corn</strong></p> <p>A large majority of the crop ranges from the V3-V5 stages. In general, growers and agronomists in many areas report that plant stands and crops look great.  The exception is some localized, heavier textured soil regions where planting conditions of earlier planted corn may have been pushed, and replanting is occurring. Sidedressing has started or is well underway in many areas. OMAFRA recently completed it’s annual PSNT measurement survey from June 5-6.  Average soil nitrate concentrations were 8.0 ppm which is lower than the 11-12 ppm range that has been observed over the past 5 years, suggesting N mineralization may be delayed from the cooler spring.  The last year when PSNT survey values were in this range was 2011. With the recent warm weather, growers and applicators are reminded to check corn herbicide labels for maximum temperature restrictions.  Of particular note, spraying of hormonal herbicides (ie. dicamba) should be avoided when temperatures are expected to be above 25°C during or after application.</p> <p><strong>Soybeans</strong></p> <p>With the exception of a few localized pockets where wet conditions have prevailed and planting continues, the majority of the soybean crop has been planted. The majority of crop is in the 1-2 trifoliate stage.  While stands look reasonable in many cases, some replanting continues in areas which received heavy rainfalls after planting where crusting was evident (particularly on fine textured soils), as well as areas where Seedcorn Maggot pressure was high and reduced populations.  A uniform population as low as 100,000 plants per acre is still considered to provide good yield potential.  Planting conditions have been reported to be good for late planted or replanted soybeans. Bean leaf beetles and soybean aphids have been observed in some fields, but at very low populations where control is not warranted.  If soybeans are to be rolled after planting, rolling should occur at the 1<sup>st</sup> to 2<sup>nd</sup> trifoliate stage where plants are no longer brittle and susceptible to snapping, and ideally in the heat of the day when plants are flaccid.  High stands losses can occur when plants are crisp and susceptible to snapping between the emergence and the 1<sup>st</sup> trifoliate stage. When in doubt, check plants after starting to roll and evaluate the stand for snapped plants which will no longer be viable.</p> <p><strong>Forages</strong></p> <p>Growers are reporting excellent yields for first cut hay. First cut hay timed for higher quality has neared completion in many regions.  In general, there has been a good weather window for first cut in most parts of the province for both haylage/silage and dry hay, and harvest progressed quickly as a result.</p> <p><strong>Canola</strong></p> <p>While a small amount of canola planting was still being reported in some areas up until the end of last week, most planting is complete and the majority of crop across most growing regions is in the 3-4 leaf stage. Swede Midge emergence was being reported as early as late May, and was occurring prior to Canola emergence in some fields.  Growers are encouraged to place and monitor Swede Midge traps. The control threshold is 20 adults across all traps in a field, and has been met in some fields this spring. Flea beetle pressure has been apparent in some fields, with some control being warranted.  As the crop progresses beyond the 3-4 leaf stage, Canola is generally able to keep ahead of feeding.  While Cabbage Seed Pod weevil has been observed in some fields, it is not typically an issue until pod set starts.</p> <p><strong>Edible Beans</strong></p> <p>Edible bean planting is reported to be nearly complete with an estimated 95% of intended acres planted. Planting progressed very quickly once started, with a large amount of crop planted in a relatively narrow window.  Planting conditions have been reported to be good.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   June 7 – 13, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_15_2017_T1.jpg"><img class="alignnone wp-image-13915 size-full" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_15_2017_T1.jpg" alt="Ontario Field Crop Report_June_15_2017_T1" width="608" height="526" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_15_2017_T1.jpg 608w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_15_2017_T1-300x260.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_June_15_2017_T1-370x320.jpg 370w" sizes="(max-width: 608px) 100vw, 608px" /></a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/crop-report-june-15-2017/feed/ 0 2017-06-15 15:46 +00:00 2017-06-15 11:46 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13904 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/swede-midge-beyond-threshold-in-many-regions/ Canola swede midge Swede midge beyond threshold in many regions Planting canola early is the best way to beat swede midge. Canola was planted late across much of the province this spring, so the risk for damage by swede midge is very high. This year swede midge are present long before bolting, and in some regions even before planting was complete. It is important to monitor canola fields using Jackson... Tue, 13 Jun 2017 20:49:31 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/swede-midge-beyond-threshold-in-many-regions/#respond Meghan Moran <div class="pf-content"><p>Planting canola early is the best way to beat swede midge. Canola was planted late across much of the province this spring, so the risk for damage by swede midge is very high. This year swede midge are present long before bolting, and in some regions even before planting was complete.</p> <p>It is important to monitor canola fields using Jackson traps with swede midge pheromone lures. Swede midge begin to emerge in mid-May to early June. That means that this spring, in most cases, traps should have been set up at the time of canola emergence. Canola is susceptible to swede midge from the 1 leaf stage until bloom. Swede midge numbers can escalate quickly so traps should be monitored every 2 to 3 days. Ideally, 3 to 4 traps should be used in each field.</p> <p>Refer to the infosheet <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Swede-Midge-Infosheet-Final-2016.pdf">(Click Here)</a> for details on where to purchase traps and how to set them up, as well as information on the swede midge life cycle and management strategies.</p> <p>Once seedlings have <strong>one true leaf</strong>, begin counting the number of midges captured in each trap and add them together. <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/swede-midgeCROPPED.jpg"><img class="size-medium wp-image-13906 alignright" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/swede-midgeCROPPED-300x247.jpg" alt="swede midgeCROPPED" width="300" height="247" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/swede-midgeCROPPED-300x247.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/swede-midgeCROPPED.jpg 561w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a>When a <strong>total of 20 adults have been captured from the start of trapping</strong>, the first insecticide application is required. Subsequent insecticide treatments may be necessary if an average of 5 adults per trap per day are caught and the canola is still in pre-flowering stages. To determine this, count the total number of midges captured per trap and divide by the number of traps and the number of days since you last counted. Make the insecticide application as soon as possible once the threshold has been reached. Do not use damage symptoms to time spray applications.</p> <p>Note that Coragen cannot be applied to fields within 60 days of planting if Lumiderm or Fortenza seed treatment was used. For optimum efficacy, Matador should be applied in the evening or early morning before temperatures rise. The currently registered products are not likely to provide 100% control.</p> <p>Swede midge reached threshold on some fields in the northern areas of Thornloe, Earlton, Kerns, Brethour, and New Liskeard prior to June 1<sup>st</sup>. However, other fields in those regions have had empty traps to date. The decision to apply an insecticide should be based on field-specific trap counts.</p> <p>Reports of canola fields above threshold have also come from the Palmerston and Ayton areas, and in Renfrew county during the first week of June. Traps counts are escalating in areas of Grey county, and around Shelburne. These reports come from canola fields that are near where canola had been planted last year, as well as areas at a greater distance from any recent canola. All fields should be monitored with traps.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/06/swede-midge-beyond-threshold-in-many-regions/feed/ 0 2017-06-13 20:49 +00:00 2017-06-13 16:49 -04:00