Field Crop News http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14288 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/11/surveying-for-parasites-of-swede-midge-in-ontario/ Canola beneficial insect swede midge wasp Surveying for Parasites of Swede Midge in Ontario Co-authored with Dr. Rebecca Hallett and Charles-Étienne Ferland (MSc Candidate), University of Guelph Swede midge continues to pose a significant threat to canola production in Ontario. Based on farmers’ experience with the pest and the difficulty of controlling swede midge through insecticide applications alone, it is clear that multiple tactics are required for successful swede midge management. Beneficial insects that... Fri, 17 Nov 2017 18:20:42 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/11/surveying-for-parasites-of-swede-midge-in-ontario/#respond Meghan Moran <div class="pf-content"><p>Co-authored with Dr. Rebecca Hallett and Charles-Étienne Ferland (MSc Candidate), University of Guelph</p> <p>Swede midge continues to pose a significant threat to canola production in Ontario. Based on farmers’ experience with the pest and the difficulty of controlling swede midge through insecticide applications alone, it is clear that multiple tactics are required for successful swede midge management. Beneficial insects that parasitize swede midge could be valuable in controlling the pest. Knowledge of the presence and activity of parasitoids will lead to refined integrated pest management strategies.</p> <p>A survey of oilseed rape in Europe in 2008-2011 identified some possible beneficial insects including the parasitic wasp <em>Synopeas myles </em>(Figure 1). Surveys in Ontario, conducted by Dr. Rebecca Hallett’s research team at University of Guelph, have shown that this insect is present in Ontario as well.</p> <div id="attachment_14291" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Synopeas-myles-Paul-Abram-CROP.png"><img class="wp-image-14291 size-medium" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Synopeas-myles-Paul-Abram-CROP-300x227.png" alt="Synopeas myles Paul Abram CROP" width="300" height="227" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Synopeas-myles-Paul-Abram-CROP-300x227.png 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Synopeas-myles-Paul-Abram-CROP.png 485w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1. <em>Synopeas myles</em>. Photo: Paul Abram, AAFC</p></div> <p>In 2016, sampling for beneficial insects that parasitize swede midge was initiated. The search was originally focused near Shelburne/Orangeville, because this is one of the first areas where swede midge was found. It has been a perennial problem in canola in this area ever since, making it a likely place to find beneficial insects. Sampling was conducted at four sites near Shelburne/Orangeville in 2016, and sites near Meaford and Elora were added for the 2017 season. Starting in early June and continuing for 8 weeks, plants showing symptoms of swede midge damage were sampled weekly at each site and brought back to Guelph to monitor emergence of midges and potential natural enemies. The goal of this ongoing study is to identify the presence of <em>S. myles</em> in Ontario canola, and to determine to what degree <em>S. myles</em> is able to parasitize and control swede midge.</p> <p>A survey of provincial canola growing regions to determine the range of <em>S. myles</em> was also conducted using similar sampling procedures in 2017. Plants at 24 additional sites were collected once or twice during June to July, in the areas of Nipissing District, Temiskaming District, Timmins, Ottawa Region, and the counties of Renfrew, Peterborough, Bruce, and Wellington.</p> <p><em>S. myles</em> is not native to Canada. It is also not a specific parasitoid of swede midge; it will also parasitize other types of midges. The wasp lays its eggs within swede midge larvae, meaning the pest is already present on canola plants and some crop damage may have already occurred. These factors mean that <em>S. myles</em> will not be a silver bullet in controlling swede midge and preventing crop damage, but there is potential for the wasp to provide some control of swede midge populations. For effective control of swede midge, multiple tactics which all help to reduce populations and the potential for population growth are needed.</p> <div id="attachment_14290" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/synopeas-myles-survey-1-charles-etienne-ferland.jpg"><img class="wp-image-14290 size-medium" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/synopeas-myles-survey-1-charles-etienne-ferland-300x264.jpg" alt="synopeas myles survey 1- charles-etienne ferland" width="300" height="264" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/synopeas-myles-survey-1-charles-etienne-ferland-300x264.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/synopeas-myles-survey-1-charles-etienne-ferland.jpg 624w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 3. Growing points of sampled canola plants, where swede midge typically lay eggs, were placed in containers of soil and observed for emerging insects. Photo: Charles-Etienne Ferland, UG</p></div> <div id="attachment_14289" style="width: 160px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/synopeas-myles-2-charles-etienne-ferland-e1510941469355.jpg"><img class="wp-image-14289 size-thumbnail" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/synopeas-myles-2-charles-etienne-ferland-150x150.jpg" alt="synopeas myles 2 - charles-etienne ferland" width="150" height="150" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2. Samples from S. myles survey. Photo: Charles-Etienne Ferland, UG</p></div> <p>Female wasps of <em>S. myles</em> lay their egg right inside the swede midge larva, which continues to develop with the wasp growing inside. Eventually the parastized swede midge larva drops to the ground to form a cocoon in the soil as they normally would. However, an <em>S. myles</em> wasp will emerge rather than an adult swede midge. Growing points of canola plants (the site targeted by swede midge for egg laying) collected in the survey were set in soil in closed containers (Figure 2), and the number of adult swede midge and <em>S. myles</em> that emerged were counted. In this way the percent parasitism by the wasp was determined.</p> <p>In 2016, <em>S. myles</em> was found at all four sites near Shelburne/Orangeville, and was present for 4 &#8211; 6 weeks of the 8 week sampling period. The wasp was typically first detected 1 &#8211; 2 weeks after swede midge first emerged. Relatively high levels of parasitism were observed in 2016; across all sites during the week of July 7<sup>th</sup> there was an average of 27.9% parasitism. There was an average of 9% parasitism per field, with one site reaching 20% parasitism of swede midge. These levels are relatively high compared to observations of <em>S. myles</em> in Europe, and other types of non-specific parasitoids. However, in 2017 abundance of <em>S. myles</em> was much lower, with the highest parasitism rate reaching only 4.1%.  Environmental and individual field differences between 2016 and 2017 likely affected both the midge and beneficial insect populations.</p> <p>The provincial survey of canola-growing areas led to the detection of the wasp around New Liskeard and West Nipissing. Where <em>S. myles</em> was present, percent parasitism ranged from 0.4 – 7.5%. The results are promising in that the non-native beneficial is being found in more northern regions under fairly limited sampling procedures. It is likely that <em>S. myles</em> is located at more sites than shown in the results, since sampling was limited in terms of both the number of times a site was sampled and the number of plants collected during the season.</p> <p>Although <em>S. myles</em> is the only parasitoid of swede midge officially identified in Ontario to date, each of the wasps collected so far still need to be examined individually to confirm its identity.  Since there are other parasitic wasps that look like <em>S. myles,</em> it is possible that additional species are present in Ontario and serving as biological control agents against the swede midge.  To date, the observed levels of parasitism are much lower than those required to control swede midge sufficiently to prevent yield loss on their own. Multiple approaches will always be required to control this difficult pest in canola. However, continued research on the environmental factors affecting parasitoid presence and abundance, and the impact of crop management practices on the beneficial, could lead to improved stewardship of these helpful insects and higher rates of parasitism. Maybe in time the distribution and population of this non-native wasp will increase. We will take all the help we can get in controlling swede midge.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/11/surveying-for-parasites-of-swede-midge-in-ontario/feed/ 0 2017-11-17 18:20 +00:00 2017-11-17 13:20 -05:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14264 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/soil-ph-and-liming-decisions/ Soil Fertility lime pH soil fertility soil testing Soil pH and liming decisions Correcting soil pH problems is one of the first steps in good soil management. If you have soil sampled recently and found that pH is low, you should act on it. Soil pH affects the availability of a wide range of nutrients in soil; if it is too low or too high, nutrients are less available to crops. If pH... Mon, 30 Oct 2017 20:37:05 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/soil-ph-and-liming-decisions/#respond Jake Munroe <div class="pf-content"><p>Correcting soil pH problems is one of the first steps in good soil management.</p> <p>If you have soil sampled recently and found that pH is low, you should act on it. Soil pH affects the availability of a wide range of nutrients in soil; if it is too low or too high, nutrients are less available to crops. If pH drops too low, e.g. below 5, aluminum toxicity can become an issue. Acid soils can also negatively impact nodulation of forage legumes, persistence of perennial forages and growth of sensitive plants, such as wheat.</p> <p>There are two values to key in on when reading a soil test:</p> <p><strong>Soil pH </strong>tells you if lime is needed. Typically, if you have wheat or field vegetables in rotation, lime is beneficial when soil pH is below 6.1 on medium or lighter textured soil. For clays and clay loams, it’s needed when pH is below 5.6 (see Table 9-4 in Publication 811).</p> <p><strong>Buffer pH </strong>tells you how much lime is needed<strong>. </strong>The lower the buffer pH value, the more lime will be required to raise the pH to a desired level. For example, soil with a buffer pH of 6 requires <strong>two to three times the lime</strong> of a soil with a buffer pH of 6.5 (Table 1). Clay and organic matter provide what’s called “reserve acidity,” which is a supply of hydrogen ions held by soil particles. This is why heavier textured soils tend to have a lower buffer pH and require more lime to increase soil pH.</p> <p>Table 1. Limestone requirements to correct soil acidity  based on soil and buffer pH (adapted from Table 9-5, Publication 811)</p> <table style="height: 236px" width="608"> <tbody> <tr style="height: 21.1181px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21.1181px;text-align: left" colspan="5">Ground limestone required &#8211; t/ha (ton/acre) (based on Agricultural Index of 75)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px" rowspan="2"><strong>Buffer pH<sup>1</sup></strong></td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px;text-align: center" colspan="4"><strong>Target soil pH</strong></td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px"><strong>7.0</strong></td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px"><strong>6.5<sup>2</sup></strong></td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px"><strong>6.0<sup>3</sup></strong></td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px"><strong>5.5<sup>4</sup></strong></td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">7.0</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.9</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">3 (1.3)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.8</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">3 (1.3)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.7</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">4 (1.8)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.6</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">5 (2.2)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">3 (1.3)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.5</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">6 (2.7)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">3 (1.3)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">1 (0.5)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.4</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">7 (3.1)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">4 (1.8)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">3 (1.3)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.3</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">8 (3.6)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">5 (2.2)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">3 (1.3)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.2</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">10 (4.5)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">6 (2.7)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">4 (1.8)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.1</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">11 (4.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">7 (3.1)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">5 (2.2)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">2 (0.9)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">6.0</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">13 (5.8)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">9 (4.0)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">6 (2.7)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">3 (1.3)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.9</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">14 (6.2)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">10 (4.5)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">7 (3.1)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">4 (1.8)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.8</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">16 (7.1)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">12 (5.4)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">8 (3.6)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">4 (1.8)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.7</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">18 (8.0)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">13 (5.8)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">9 (4.0)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">5 (2.2)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.6</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">15 (6.7)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">11 (4.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">6 (2.7)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.5</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">17 (7.6)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">12 (5.4)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">8 (3.6)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.4</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">19 (8.5)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">14 (6.2)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">9 (4.0)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.3</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">15 (6.7)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">10 (4.5)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.2</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">17 (7.6)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">11 (4.9)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.1</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">19 (8.5)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">13 (5.8)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">5.0</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">15 (6.7)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">4.9</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">16 (7.1)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">4.8</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">18 (8.0)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">4.7</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px">4.6</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> <td style="width: 115.799px;height: 21px">20 (8.9)</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 114.688px;height: 21px" colspan="5"><sup>1 </sup>Buffer pH in Ontario is measured using the Shoemaker, MacLean and Pratt (SMP) buffer. Other jurisdictions may use different buffers, which will give similar but not identical results.</p> <p><sup>2 </sup>Lime if soil pH is below 6.1</p> <p><sup>3</sup> Lime if soil pH is below 5.6</p> <p><sup>4</sup> Lime if soil pH is below 5.1</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Once you have determined your target pH and the lime requirement, it’s time to compare products.</p> <p>Limestone quality is determined by how well the lime can neutralize acidity and how finely it’s ground. These values are combined into what’s called the Agricultural Index. OMAFRA lime guidelines are based on an Ag Index of 75. It’s essential to compare prices of lime based on relative Ag Index values. For example, a product that costs $20 per ton with an Ag Index of 95 is a better deal than a product that costs $15 per ton with an Ag Index of 65 (see below).</p> <p><img class="alignnone wp-image-14268" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cost-comparison-example-lime-and-Ag-Index-300x143.jpg" alt="Cost comparison example - lime and Ag Index" width="633" height="302" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cost-comparison-example-lime-and-Ag-Index-300x143.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cost-comparison-example-lime-and-Ag-Index-768x365.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Cost-comparison-example-lime-and-Ag-Index.jpg 1042w" sizes="(max-width: 633px) 100vw, 633px" /></p> <p>The choice between calcitic and dolomitic lime is simple: if your soil test level for magnesium is below 100 parts per million, use dolomitic lime; if it is higher, use either type.</p> <p>If you work with a lab or ag retailer to have grid or zone soil sampling done on your fields, the same principles apply for soil pH and liming, just at a finer scale. Prescriptions are based on soil variability and can allow for a more accurate (and potentially cost-effective) lime application across the field.</p> <p><strong>The bottom line:</strong> Soil sample regularly to monitor soil pH if you know it can be an issue in your area. If your soil test calls for lime application, follow the guidelines above to make an accurate and cost-effective decision on rate and product. Addressing soil pH is an essential component of managing soil fertility.</p> <div id="attachment_14265" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14265" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lime-Truck-Dale-Cowan-cropped-300x216.jpg" alt="Lime being applied to a field (Photo: D. Cowan)" width="300" height="216" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lime-Truck-Dale-Cowan-cropped-300x216.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lime-Truck-Dale-Cowan-cropped-768x552.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Lime-Truck-Dale-Cowan-cropped-1024x737.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Field application of lime (Photo: D. Cowan)</p></div> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/soil-ph-and-liming-decisions/feed/ 0 2017-10-30 20:37 +00:00 2017-10-30 16:37 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14252 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/locating-the-overwintering-brown-marmorated-stink-bug/ Baute Bug Blog Corn Edible Beans Soybean BMSB Brown Marmorated Stinkbug Corn Pest Edible Bean Pest Soybean Pest Locating the Overwintering Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Co-Authored with Karli Barton, Field Research Technician, OMAFRA-Ridgetown As colder weather approaches, we have the opportunity to identify overwintering locations for the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). BMSB and a few other stink bugs like to move into homes and other sheltered areas for the winter. This is a great time for homeowners dealing with this nuisance to help... Mon, 30 Oct 2017 19:35:39 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/locating-the-overwintering-brown-marmorated-stink-bug/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Co-Authored with Karli Barton, Field Research Technician, OMAFRA-Ridgetown<br /> </strong></p> <p>As colder weather approaches, we have the opportunity to identify overwintering locations for the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). BMSB and a few other stink bugs like to move into homes and other sheltered areas for the winter. This is a great time for homeowners dealing with this nuisance to help with citizen science and alert us to new locations. The brown marmorated stink bug is an invasive species from Asia that was first introduced to Pennsylvania in the late 1990s, causing major economic losses in agricultural production. It has since moved into a number of states and provinces, including Ontario. This invasive species has over 300 known hosts including a variety of fruit trees, berries, grapes, vegetables, field crops including corn, soybeans and edible beans, ornamental trees, and ornamental shrubs.</p> <p>BMSB spend the winter months in houses and move onto their host plants during the warmer months. Although the insect has not yet been observed in field crops in Ontario, established breeding populations have been confirmed in a few urban locations. The extremely mobile nature of this insect during the growing season means that it is difficult to scout and monitor. Alternatively, overwintering locations can serve as a fixed location for monitoring and can provide reliable information about the risk level of BMSB. We often establish field survey locations near these hihg risk locations where they have been observed by homeowners. With colder weather coming, it is likely that homeowners may begin to encounter these in their homes.</p> <div id="attachment_14253" style="width: 1775px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/locating-the-overwintering-brown-marmorated-stink-bug/bmsb-homeowner-established-pop-map-with-legend/" rel="attachment wp-att-14253"><img class="size-full wp-image-14253" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/BMSB-homeowner-established-pop-map-with-legend.png" alt="Map of Southern Ontario showing confirmed homeowner finds and established breeding locations of BMSB.." width="1765" height="1130" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/BMSB-homeowner-established-pop-map-with-legend.png 1765w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/BMSB-homeowner-established-pop-map-with-legend-300x192.png 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/BMSB-homeowner-established-pop-map-with-legend-768x492.png 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/BMSB-homeowner-established-pop-map-with-legend-1024x656.png 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 1765px) 100vw, 1765px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1. Confirmed homeowner finds and established breeding locations of BMSB in Ontario.</p></div> <p>If you think you have found BMSB in homes in locations not represented on the map, please contact the OMAFRA Agriculture Information Contact Centre at 1-877-424-1300 or send an email with good quality photos to <a href="mailto:ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca">ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca</a>.</p> <div id="attachment_14255" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/locating-the-overwintering-brown-marmorated-stink-bug/bmsb-id-photo/" rel="attachment wp-att-14255"><img class="size-full wp-image-14255" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/BMSB-ID-photo-e1509127432909.png" alt="Photo of BMSB" width="300" height="330" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2. Distinguishing Characteristics of BMSB.</p></div> <p>There are a couple identifiable characteristics that can be used in distinguishing BMSB from look-alikes:</p> <ol> <li>White bands on its antennae</li> <li>Distinct white triangles in a pattern along its abdomen</li> <li>The edge of its pronotum or “shoulders” is smooth</li> </ol> <p style="text-align: left;">You can also visit our website for additional photos, infosheets, ID postcards, and potential management options at <a href="http://www.ontario.ca/stinkbug">ontario.ca\stinkbug</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/locating-the-overwintering-brown-marmorated-stink-bug/feed/ 0 2017-10-30 19:35 +00:00 2017-10-30 15:35 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14239 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/2017-grain-corn-ear-mould-and-vomitoxin-don-survey/ Corn Diseases corn mould Ontario vomitoxin 2017 Grain Corn Ear Mould and Vomitoxin (DON) Survey Co-Authored with Albert Tenuta, Field Crop Pathologist, OMAFRA OMAFRA field crop staff with the assistance from members of the Ontario Agri-Business Association (OABA) have completed the annual Provincial corn ear mould and mycotoxin survey. These mycotoxins, particularly vomitoxin (DON) produced primarily by Gibberella/Fusarium ear moulds can be disruptive when fed to livestock, especially hogs. The purpose of the annual survey... Fri, 27 Oct 2017 02:31:52 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/2017-grain-corn-ear-mould-and-vomitoxin-don-survey/#respond Ben Rosser <div class="pf-content"><h1></h1> <p><strong>Co-Authored with Albert Tenuta, Field Crop Pathologist, OMAFRA</strong></p> <p>OMAFRA field crop staff with the assistance from members of the Ontario Agri-Business Association (OABA) have completed the annual Provincial corn ear mould and mycotoxin survey. These mycotoxins, particularly vomitoxin (DON) produced primarily by Gibberella/Fusarium ear moulds can be disruptive when fed to livestock, especially hogs. The purpose of the annual survey is to assess grower and industry risk. Eighty-six percent of the samples tested low (&lt;2.00 ppm) which bodes well for the 2017 Ontario corn crop.</p> <p>From October 7<sup>th</sup> to 19<sup>th</sup>, a total of 179 corn ear samples were collected from across the province and rated for visible ear mould infection. Five consecutive ears were pulled from four random locations throughout a field. After recording pictures to document the presence of moulds, insect, bird feeding damage, etc, samples were placed into driers as soon as possible after collection. Dry ears were shelled and mixed through a sample splitter and delivered to SGS Agri-Food Laboratories in Guelph for vomitoxin (DON) analysis.</p> <h3><strong>Results:</strong></h3> <p>Of the 179 samples collected:</p> <ul> <li>69% (124) had a DON concentration of less than 0.5 ppm;</li> <li>17% (30) had a DON concentration between 0.5 and 2.0 ppm;</li> <li>14% (25) had a DON concentration of 2.0 ppm or greater</li> </ul> <p>While visual mould symptoms were apparent in some samples, they were much less pronounced than the 2016 survey, and more in line with what is observed most years. Vomitoxin analysis revealed DON concentrations lower than 2016, although incidences of elevated DON concentrations were still slightly higher than the long term average (Table 1). The vast majority of the samples (86%) tested below 2 ppm but as we state every year, growers need to be vigilant and assess each of the fields for the presence of disease, insect feeding, hybrid performance, etc.  It is important to note that 5 of the 25 fields which had DON levels &gt;2ppm were included in the survey because the growers had observed ear rots and were concerned. If these 5 fields are removed, the results would change slightly ( 71% (&lt;0.5ppm), 17% (0.50 to &lt;2.00 ppm) and 12% (≥2.00 ppm). A map showing the distribution of samples and their corresponding DON levels is presented in Figure 1.</p> <p><strong>Table 1</strong>. Vomitoxin (DON) results from the past 7 Ontario vomitoxin surveys.</p> <p><img class="alignnone wp-image-14261" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/VOM-300x55.png" alt="VOM" width="944" height="173" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/VOM-300x55.png 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/VOM-768x142.png 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/VOM-1024x189.png 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/VOM.png 1391w" sizes="(max-width: 944px) 100vw, 944px" /></p> <p><strong><img src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/word-image-8.png" alt="C:\Users\TENUTAAL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Outlook\5W29FPED\Vomitoxins_Results_2017.png" />Figure 1.</strong> Ontario corn ear mould and vomitoxin (DON) survey sampling sites and DON analysis levels in 2017.</p> <p><strong>Feeding Damage</strong></p> <p>Ear feeding by pests, particularly Western Bean Cutworm (WBC), and in a few cases, birds, presented an opportunity for greater mould infestation in some samples. In other samples with light WBC feeding, mould and vomitoxin appeared relatively low to non-existent, suggesting that while ear damage may predispose risk, increased mould or vomitoxin levels were not a certainty. Visual mould and elevated vomitoxin levels were also observed in samples with little or no feeding injury. WBC damage also seemed more apparent in areas which may not have traditionally received high WBC pressure, such as central Ontario. Growers in these areas may need to start monitoring WBC in the future.</p> <h3><strong>Going Forwards:</strong></h3> <p>This survey does not fully capture all regions of the province, and results can vary locally from field to field depending on hybrid, planting date, insect feeding or fungicide practices. These results may not fully capture what is occurring in your fields, and therefore monitoring is recommended. Timely harvest is important. Leaving diseased grain in the field allows the ear rot fungi to keep growing, which will increase the risk of mouldy grain and mycotoxin contamination.</p> <p>If a field contains a significant level of ear mould, collect a representative sample prior to harvest and have it tested for mycotoxins before storing the grain or feeding it to livestock. If necessary segregate the harvested grain from your other corn. A lab test is often the only reliable way to definitively determine mycotoxin presence and levels.</p> <p>When ear rots are present, the following harvest, storage and feeding precautions are advisable (Adapted from OMAFRA Pub 811, <em>Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</em>):</p> <ul> <li>Harvest as early as possible especially susceptible hybrids.</li> <li>If insect or bird damage is evident, harvest outside damaged rows separately. Keep and handle the grain from these rows separately.</li> <li>Adjust harvest equipment to minimize damage to corn, and to remove smaller end kernels or those that have been damaged from mould or insect feeding. Clean corn thoroughly to remove pieces of cob, small kernels and red dog.</li> <li>Clean bins before storing new grain and cool the grain after drying. If possible, segregate corn based on vomitoxin content to help match end use.</li> <li>Check stored grain often for temperature, wet spots, insects and mould growth.</li> <li>Exercise caution when handling or feeding mouldy corn to livestock, especially to hogs. Pink or reddish moulds are particularly harmful. Test suspect samples for toxins. Work with a nutritionist to manage vomitoxin levels in feed.</li> </ul> <p>Preventing ear rots and mould can be difficult since weather conditions are critical to disease development, so a few things to consider for 2018. Hybrid selection is important but remember although some tolerant hybrids are available, none have complete resistance. Crop rotation can reduce the incidence of ear rots, while several foliar fungicides aimed at suppressing ear rots have also been registered. Cultural practices such as tillage have been shown to have limited success in preventing ear and kernel rots.</p> <h3><strong>Acknowledgements:</strong></h3> <p>We would like to thank the Grain Farmers of Ontario and SGS Agri-Food Laboratories in Guelph for their support of this survey and analysis as well as the Ontario Agri Business Association (OABA) and its members for their interest, support and participation. Sincere thanks to all of those who helped assist in the co-ordination and collection of samples: Agris Co-operative, Benjamins Agronomy Services, MacEwen Agricentre, Maizex Seeds, Parrish and Heimbecker, P.T. Sullivan Agro Inc., Sprucedale Agromart, TCO Agromart, as well as the several other corn producers and OMAFRA field crop staff who were involved.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/2017-grain-corn-ear-mould-and-vomitoxin-don-survey/feed/ 0 2017-10-27 02:31 +00:00 2017-10-26 22:31 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14204 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/omafra-field-crop-report-october-5-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – October 5, 2017 Fall Weed Management Tips Many farmers have witnessed the value in applying herbicides in the fall to perennial weeds, especially perennial sow-thistle and dandelion (Figure 1.). Often they will see a reduction in their population the next year as well as a delay in their shoot emergence. This allows the planted crop to have a competitive advantage over those perennial... Thu, 05 Oct 2017 16:49:42 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/omafra-field-crop-report-october-5-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Fall Weed Management Tips</strong></p> <p>Many farmers have witnessed the value in applying herbicides in the fall to perennial weeds, especially perennial sow-thistle and dandelion (Figure 1.). Often they will see a reduction in their population the next year as well as a delay in their shoot emergence. This allows the planted crop to have a competitive advantage over those perennial weeds. Unfortunately weather conditions around the time of application can be quite variable and can influence a herbicide’s effectiveness. Let’s go through three “top tips” to make the most of this application window.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14205" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f1.jpg" alt="Figure 1. The spring following a fall application of glyphosate (left) compared to no application (right)" width="800" height="602" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f1.jpg 800w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f1-300x226.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f1-768x578.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 800px) 100vw, 800px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1.  </strong>The spring following a fall application of glyphosate (left) compared to no application (right)</p> <ol> <li>Choose the most effective products, rate and tank-mixes for the perennial weed that you are targeting. Table 1. outlines what public researchers in Ontario have found to be most effective at controlling perennial plants in the fall.</li> </ol> <p><strong>Table 1.</strong> Best herbicide option for each targeted perennial plant based on research conducted by the University of Guelph, Department of Plant Agriculture.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="149">Perennial Plant</td> <td width="208">Product(s)</td> <td width="151">Product Rate</td> <td width="130">Average Control (Range in control)</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="149">Dandelion</td> <td width="208">Glyphosate (540 g/L)</td> <td width="151">1.34 L/ac</td> <td width="130">90% (84 &#8211; 100%)</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="149">Perennial Sow-thistle</td> <td width="208">Glyphosate (540 g/L)</td> <td width="151">1 L/ac</td> <td width="130">90% (85 – 100%)</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="149">Canada thistle</td> <td width="208">Glyphosate (540 g/L)</td> <td width="151">1.34 L/ac</td> <td width="130">90% (85 – 100%)</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="149">Alfalfa</td> <td width="208">Glyphosate (540 g/L)+ 2,4-D Ester (564 g/L)</td> <td width="151">0.67 L/ac + 0.5 L/ac</td> <td width="130">95% (90 – 100%)</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="149">Wild carrot</td> <td width="208">Glyphosate (540 g/L)</td> <td width="151">1.34 L/ac</td> <td width="130">82% (49 – 100%)</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="149">Burdock</td> <td width="208">Glyphosate (540 g/L)</td> <td width="151">1.34 L/ac</td> <td width="130">90% (85 – 100%)</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="149">Red clover</td> <td width="208">Glyphosate (540 g/L)+ Distinct</td> <td width="151">0.67 L/ac + 200 g/ac</td> <td width="130">99% (96 &#8211; 100%)</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <ol start="2"> <li> Apply when air temperatures are above 8˚C for a minimum of two hours after application. This is best accomplished by applying during late morning or mid-day so that the targeted plant is taking up glyphosate during the heat of the day.</li> </ol> <ol start="3"> <li>After a frost event, wait 2-3 days before evaluating weed growth and if the target plants look fine and air temperatures are above 8˚C then resume applications. For example, milkweed is very sensitive to frost. Figure 2 shows a milkweed plant 3 days after an evening where the air temperature reached a low of -3˚C. It would not make sense to apply glyphosate on a weed species in that state since its leaves are unlikely to absorb any herbicide. Alternatively, dandelion and wild carrot were not affected by the same frost event (Figure 3. and 4.) and one could resume fall applications to those species based on the condition of their leaves. Improved control of Canada thistle into the next season has been demonstrated when herbicide applications were made after the first frost event.</li> </ol> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14206" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f2-1024x765.jpg" alt="Figure 2. Milkweed plants in wheat stubble 3 days after a frost where the night time temperature was -3˚C" width="1024" height="765" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f2-1024x765.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f2-300x224.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f2-768x574.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 2.  </strong>Milkweed plants in wheat stubble 3 days after a frost where the night time temperature was -3˚C</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14207" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f3-1024x765.jpg" alt="Figure 3. Dandelion unharmed 3 days after a frost event." width="1024" height="765" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f3-1024x765.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f3-300x224.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f3-768x574.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 3.  </strong>Dandelion unharmed 3 days after a frost event.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14208" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f4-1024x765.jpg" alt="Figure 4. Wild carrot unharmed 3 days after a frost event." width="1024" height="765" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f4-1024x765.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f4-300x224.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_f4-768x574.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 4.  </strong>Wild carrot unharmed 3 days after a frost event.</p> <ol start="4"> <li>Wait a minimum of 72 hours after application to perennial weeds if you want to till the soil. The longer that you can wait after application before making a tillage pass, the more the herbicide will translocate within the plant and do a more effective job controlling the species.</li> </ol> <p><strong>Table 2.  September 27 – October 3, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14209" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_t2.jpg" alt="Table 2. September 27 – October 3, 2017 Weather Data" width="538" height="533" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_t2.jpg 538w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_t2-150x150.jpg 150w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_t2-300x297.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_October_05_2017_t2-80x80.jpg 80w" sizes="(max-width: 538px) 100vw, 538px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/10/omafra-field-crop-report-october-5-2017/feed/ 0 2017-10-05 16:49 +00:00 2017-10-05 12:49 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14197 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-28-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 28, 2017 New Online Version for Inspection of Soil Pest Assessment Reports (PAR): Those requiring access to Class 12 Pesticides Neonicotinoid (NNI) treated corn and soybean seeds) are required to submit an Inspection of Soil Pest Assessment Report to their seed vendor prior to the purchase of the seed. There is now an online version of the form that can be filled... Thu, 28 Sep 2017 18:14:45 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-28-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>New Online Version for Inspection of Soil Pest Assessment Reports (PAR): </strong>Those requiring access to Class 12 Pesticides Neonicotinoid (NNI) treated corn and soybean seeds) are required to submit an Inspection of Soil Pest Assessment Report to their seed vendor prior to the purchase of the seed. There is now an online version of the form that can be filled out and sent directly to your vendor at: <a href="https://omafra.secure.force.com/PAR">https://omafra.secure.force.com/PAR</a>.</p> <p>Your seed vendor will be advised of your PAR submission, and once accepted, a copy of the form will be sent directly to OMAFRA. This eliminates the need for the vendor to take the additional step of submitting these online forms to OMAFRA by October 31<sup>st</sup> of each year.  In addition, the online version also makes use of the AgMaps mapping tool to complete and attach the required field sketches done by the producers or Professional Pest Advisor to the online form.</p> <p><strong>Schedule 1 Begins for Phased-In Professional Pest Advisors (PPA): </strong>Fall is a great time to scout for wireworms and grubs (Figure 1.) if you require a Pest Assessment Report (PAR) for the purchase of Class 12 Pesticides (NNI treated corn and soybean seed) for next year’s growing season. A PAR is valid for 12 months from the time the assessment was completed. Anyone certified through the IPM course at <a href="https://www.ipmcertified.ca/">https://www.ipmcertified.ca/</a> can conduct the PAR each year until the year that their farm property lands within one of the schedules.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14198" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_f1-1024x683.jpg" alt="Figure 1. European chafer grub" width="1024" height="683" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_f1-1024x683.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_f1-300x200.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_f1-768x512.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_f1.jpg 1500w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1.  </strong>European chafer grub</p> <p>Schedule 1 begins on August 31, 2017 until August 30, 2018. Those farm properties that are in the counties listed under Schedule 1 will require a PPA to conduct their next Pest Assessment Report (See Table 1, below). This does not mean that a PAR is revoked and a new one is required. However, once the PAR expires after 12 months, the next PAR must be completed by a PPA.  Also beginning on August 31, 2017, the regulation requires that the professional pest advisor be financially independent. This means he/she cannot receive a specific financial incentive (above and beyond their salary or commission) to promote the sale of Class 12 pesticide-treated corn or soybean seed over the sale of non-Class 12 seed.</p> <p>More information on who qualifies as a Professional Pest Advisor can be found here: <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/professional-pest-advisors#section-1">https://www.ontario.ca/page/professional-pest-advisors#section-1</a></p> <p><strong>Table 1: Professional Pest Advisor Requirement Phase-In – Excerpt from the Integrated Pest Management Course for Corn and Soybeans</strong></p> <table width="625"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="3" width="625"><strong>Professional Pest Advisor Requirement Phase-In</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="117"><strong>Date</strong></td> <td width="115"><strong>Schedule</strong></td> <td width="393"><strong>Counties or Regions</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="117">Aug 31, 2017</td> <td width="115">Schedule 1</td> <td width="393">Dufferin, Frontenac, Halton, Lambton, Middlesex, Muskoka, Prince Edward, Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry, Toronto, Wellington</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="117">Aug 31, 2018</td> <td width="115">Schedule 2</td> <td width="393">Bruce, Elgin, Grey, Haldimand, Hamilton, Huron, Nipissing, Norfolk, Ottawa, Oxford, Peel, Sudbury, Waterloo</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="117">Aug 31, 2019</td> <td width="115">Schedule 3</td> <td width="393">Algoma, Brant, Chatham-Kent, Cochrane, Durham, Essex, Haliburton, Hastings, Kawartha Lakes, Kenora, Lanark, Leeds and Grenville, Lennox and Addington, Manitoulin, Niagara, Northumberland, Parry Sound, Perth, Peterborough, Prescott and Russell, Rainy River, Renfrew, Simcoe, Thunder Bay, Timiskaming, York</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>For more information on the Class 12 requirements, please refer to: <a href="https://www.ontario.ca/page/neonicotinoid-regulations">https://www.ontario.ca/page/neonicotinoid-regulations</a></p> <p><strong>Table 2.  September 20 &#8211; 26, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14200" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_t2.jpg" alt="Table 2. September 20 - 26, 2017 Weather Data" width="539" height="531" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_t2.jpg 539w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_t2-300x296.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_28_2017_t2-80x80.jpg 80w" sizes="(max-width: 539px) 100vw, 539px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-28-2017/feed/ 0 2017-09-28 18:14 +00:00 2017-09-28 14:14 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14189 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-21-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 21, 2017 Plan to Assess Field for Ear Rot and Mycotoxin Risk With assistance from the Ontario Agri Business Association (OABA) and funding through the Grain Farmers of Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) will begin sampling grower corn fields to determine ear mould incidence and occurrence of mycotoxins in the grain.  These... Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:09:31 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-21-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Plan to Assess Field for Ear Rot and Mycotoxin Risk</strong></p> <p>With assistance from the Ontario Agri Business Association (OABA) and funding through the Grain Farmers of Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) will begin sampling grower corn fields to determine ear mould incidence and occurrence of mycotoxins in the grain.  These mycotoxins, particularly vomitoxin (DON) produced primarily by Gibberella/Fusarium ear moulds can be disruptive when fed to livestock, especially hogs.  The purpose of this annual survey is to access grower and industry risk.</p> <p>What can growers do? As corn producers plan for harvest they should be assessing their fields for stalk rot and ear moulds. The distribution and prevalence of these diseases vary from year to year but they are present every year, especially when the crop is planted late or under stress (water stress, insect feeding, etc).  Growers should assess fields each year, because these pre-harvest assessments can alert them to potential problems and provide time for livestock producers to segregate, obtain alternative grain, or hold onto stored corn from the previous year.</p> <p>Scouting practices are similar for all corn ear rots. Begin scouting fields at late dent stage to determine the presence and severity of ear rots. When scouting, randomly select plants and pull back the husk to examine the entire ear. A quick method is to select 100 plants across the field (20 ears each from five different areas). For each ear, be sure to peel back the husks and examine the entire ear. Fields with 10% of ears having significant mould growth should be harvested sooner than later.</p> <p>Leaving diseased grain in the field allows the ear rot fungi to keep growing, which will increase the risk of mouldy grain and mycotoxin contamination (Table 1).  Most ear rot fungi continue to grow (and potentially produce mycotoxins) until the grain has less than 15 percent moisture. In severely infected fields, it may be worthwhile to harvest grain at higher moisture and then dry it to less than 15 percent to minimize further mycotoxin accumulation.  If a field contains a significant level of ear mould, collect a representative sample at harvest and have it tested for mycotoxins before storing the grain or feeding it to livestock. A lab test is often the only reliable way to definitively diagnose an ear rot or mycotoxin.</p> <p>Preventing ear rots and mould can be difficult since weather conditions are critical to disease development. Although some tolerant hybrids are available, none have complete resistance. Crop rotation reduces the incidence of some ear rots, as well as, several foliar fungicides aimed at suppressing ear rots have been registered. Cultural practices have been shown to have limited success in preventing ear and kernel rots. Minimize these diseases through timely harvest and proper drying and storage.</p> <p>When ear rot is present, the following storage and feeding precautions are advisable:</p> <ul> <li>Harvest as early as possible</li> <li>If insect or bird damage is evident, harvest outside damaged rows separately. Keep and handle the grain from these rows separately.</li> <li>Adjust harvest equipment to minimize damage to corn. Clean corn thoroughly to remove pieces of cob, small kernels and red dog.</li> <li>Cool the grain after drying</li> <li>Clean bins before storing new grain</li> <li>Check stored grain often for temperature, wet spots, insects and mould growth</li> <li>Control storage insects</li> <li>Exercise caution in feeding mouldy corn to livestock, especially to hogs. Pink or reddish moulds are particularly harmful. Suspect samples should be tested for toxins.</li> </ul> <p>As mentioned earlier, it is critical to identify ear rots in the field because many of the fungi responsible for these diseases produce mycotoxins which can not only harm livestock and humans but contaminated grain can be difficult to market and may be docked in price. Management begins with proper identification so how can a grower tell the difference between these ear moulds.</p> <p><strong>Gibberella Ear Rot  </strong></p> <p>The most common and important ear mould in Ontario is Gibberella zeae which is the sexual reproductive stage of Fusarium graminearium.  This fungus not only infects corn but also small grains such as wheat and can survive on soybean roots. Gibberella in most cases begins at the ear tip and works its way down the ear plus the husks from infected ears are often tightly adhered to the ear (Figure 1).  Although the fungus can produce a white-coloured mould which makes it difficult to tell apart from Fusarium Kernel Rot, the two can be distinguished easily when Gibberella produces its characteristic red or pink colour mould.  Infection begins through the silk channel and thus, in most cases starts at the ear tip and works its way down the ear. In severe cases, most of the ear may be covered with mould growth. Corn silks are most susceptible 2–10 days after initiation. Warm and wet weather during this period is ideal for infection.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14190" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg" alt="Figure 1. Gibberella ear rot - Red/pink mould which often begins on ear tip" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1.  </strong>Gibberella ear rot &#8211; Red/pink mould which often begins on ear tip</p> <p><strong>Fusarium Kernel Rot </strong></p> <p>Unlike Gibberella, Fusarium infected kernels are often scattered around the cob amongst healthy looking kernels or on kernels that have been damaged for example by insect injury or bird feeding.  Fusarium infection produces a white to pink or salmon-coloured mould.  A &#8220;white streaking&#8221; or &#8220;star-bursting&#8221; can be seen on the infected kernel surface (Figure 2). Although many Fusarium species may be responsible for these symptoms, the primary species we are concerned about in Ontario is Fusarium verticillioides (formerly Fusarium moniliforme). Fusarium survives in corn debris. The significance of this fungus is that it produces a toxin called fumonisin that has been shown to cause cancer (carcinogen) in humans. The environmental conditions that favour disease development are warm, wet weather 2–3 weeks after silking.</p> <div id="attachment_14191" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14191" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f2-1024x818.jpg" alt="Figure 2. Fuarium ear rot – White/pink mould anywhere on ear." width="1024" height="818" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f2-1024x818.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f2-300x240.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f2-768x614.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text"><strong>Figure 2.  </strong>Fuarium ear rot – White/pink mould anywhere on ear.</p></div> <p><strong>Diplodia Ear Rot  </strong></p> <p>The characteristic ear symptom of Stenocarpella maydis and S. macrospora infection is a white mould that begins at the base of the ear and will eventually cover and rot the entire ear (Figure 3).  Mould growth can also occur on the outer husk which has small black bumps (pycnidia) embedded in the mould.  These reproductive structures are where new spores are produced. Pycnidia (the small, black, spore-producing structures of the fungus) overwinter on corn residue and are the source of infection for the subsequent corn crop.  Dry weather before silking, immediately followed by wet conditions, favor Diplodia infection.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14192" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f3.jpg" alt="Figure 3. Diplodia ear rot – Mould begins at base" width="458" height="363" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f3.jpg 458w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f3-300x238.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 458px) 100vw, 458px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 3.  </strong>Diplodia ear rot – Mould begins at base</p> <p><strong>Penicillium Ear Rot</strong></p> <p>Penicillium rot <strong>(<em>Penicillium </em></strong>sp) produces a light blue-green powdery mould which grows between the kernels and cob/husk surface (Figure 4).  Infected kernels could become bleached or streaked.  It can be a serious problem if corn is stored at high moisture levels (greater 18%).</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14193" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f4.jpg" alt="Figure 4. Penicillium ear rot - Mould between kernels and on cobs/husk" width="429" height="438" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f4.jpg 429w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_f4-294x300.jpg 294w" sizes="(max-width: 429px) 100vw, 429px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 4.  </strong>Penicillium ear rot &#8211; Mould between kernels and on cobs/husk</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   </strong>Common ear rots and moulds that occur in Ontario and the primary mycotoxins they produce</p> <table width="654"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="173"><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Corn Ear Rot</strong></td> <td width="277"><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Description</strong></td> <td width="204"><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Primary</strong></p> <p><strong>Mycotoxins</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="173"><strong>Gibberella</strong></p> <p><strong><em>(Gibberella zeae,</em></strong><strong> also called <em>Fusarium graminearum</em> (asexual stage))</strong></td> <td width="277">·         <strong>Red/pink mould</strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Begins on ear tip</strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Bird, insect injury increases damage</strong></td> <td width="204">·         <strong>Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin or DON)</strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Zearalenone (ZEN)</strong></p> <p>·         <strong>T-2 toxin</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="173"><strong>Fusarium</strong></p> <p><strong><em>(Fusarium</em></strong><strong> <em>verticillioides)</em></strong></td> <td width="277">·         <strong>White, pink or salmon coloured </strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Can occur anywhere on ear </strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Often begins at the sites of insect damage </strong></td> <td width="204">·         <strong>Fumonisins</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="173"><strong>Diplodia</strong></p> <p><strong><em>(Stenocarpella maydis)</em></strong></td> <td width="277">·         <strong>White mould</strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Begins at base of ear but often entire ear covered</strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Black pycnidia (bumps) on husks and kernels</strong></td> <td width="204">·         <strong>None </strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="173"><strong>Penicillium </strong></p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong></td> <td width="277">·         <strong>Blue-green mould </strong></p> <p>·         <strong>Mould between kernels and on cobs/husk</strong></td> <td width="204">·  <strong>Ochratoxins </strong></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>More information can be found in OMAFRA’s Field Crop Agronomy Guide – Publication 811, or Crop Protection Network Publication “Corn Management Disease Series – Ear Rots” at CropProtectionNetwork.org or on the Grain Farmers of Ontario Website (<a href="http://gfo.ca/Production/Production-Resources">http://gfo.ca/Production/Production-Resources</a>).</p> <p>Photo credits: Crop Protection Network</p> <p><strong>Table 2.  September 13 &#8211; 19, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14194" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_t2.jpg" alt="Table 2. September 13 - 19, 2017 Weather Data" width="538" height="431" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_t2.jpg 538w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_21_2017_t2-300x240.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 538px) 100vw, 538px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-21-2017/feed/ 0 2017-09-25 12:09 +00:00 2017-09-25 08:09 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14186 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/making-soybean-silage/ Forages Soybean forage silage soybean Making Soybean Silage Co-author: Horst Bohner, Soybean Specialist In 2017, wet growing conditions have made it difficult to put up high quality forages. A wet spring delayed planting in many regions, and the cool summer and an early frost may prevent some soybeans from reaching their full potential as an oilseed crop. These circumstances may encourage producers to consider harvesting soybeans for silage.... Thu, 21 Sep 2017 14:00:59 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/making-soybean-silage/#respond Christine O'Reilly <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Co-author: Horst Bohner, Soybean Specialist</strong></p> <p>In 2017, wet growing conditions have made it difficult to put up high quality forages. A wet spring delayed planting in many regions, and the cool summer and an early frost may prevent some soybeans from reaching their full potential as an oilseed crop. These circumstances may encourage producers to consider harvesting soybeans for silage.</p> <p>Before committing to making silage, check the labels on all crop protection products that have been used on the soybeans. Some will list a pre-harvest interval (PHI) for silage. Other products will clearly state that the formula is not safe for use on feed, forage, or silage. There will be products that do not mention silage or feed on the label. These have not been tested for their effects on livestock, and crops treated with them should not be fed.</p> <p>Once it has been determined whether the soybeans could be safely fed, the next step is to clear the change of purpose on insured acres with Agricorp (1-888-247-4999).</p> <p>Soybeans can be ensiled right up to the R7 stage (full maturity), but highest feed quality is usually achieved at R3 (beginning pod) or R4 (full pod). Plants need to be wilted down to 60-65% moisture. Use of a roller-conditioner may speed drying time while minimizing losses. Soybeans have more buffer capacity than corn, and their low sugar/high oil content can make proper fermentation a challenge. Silage inoculants and added sugar – as grain corn or molasses – can increase the odds of success. Another strategy is to make soybean-corn silage by mixing the two crops in a 2:1 ratio before packing into the silo. The sugars and starches in the corn can help overcome the buffering tendencies of the soybeans.</p> <p>The nutritional value of soybean is comparable to early bloom alfalfa, and this remains consistent as the plant matures although how it feeds out varies. As the oil content of the beans increases with maturity, later harvested plants may have lower fibre digestibility and reduced intakes. Soybean silage is often most palatable as no more than 50% of the ration (dry matter basis).</p> <p>Soybeans were first introduced to Ontario as a forage crop, and are routinely used in some northeastern states as part of dairy rations. With a bit of planning, soybean silage can be used to increase the amount of quality forage available.</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>Brown, C., and Bohner, H. 2012. <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2012/09/5299/">Soybeans as a forage crop</a>. Online. Field Crop News. fieldcropnews.com/2012/09/5299/</p> <p>Manitoba Agriculture. Date Unknown. <a href="http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/forages/print,ensiling-soybeans.html">Ensiling Soybeans</a>. Online. www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/forages/print,ensiling-soybeans.html</p> <p>Undersander, D., Jarek, K., Anderson, T., Schneider, N., and Milligan, L. 2007. <a href="http://ipcm.wisc.edu/blog/2013/08/a-guide-to-making-soybean-silage/">A guide to making soybean silage</a>. Online. Forage and Grazinglands doi:10.1094/FG-2007-0119-01- MG</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/making-soybean-silage/feed/ 0 2017-09-21 14:00 +00:00 2017-09-21 10:00 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14180 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-14-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 14, 2017 Best Management Practices for Late Planted Winter Wheat With many soybean fields across the countryside just starting to change colour, harvest is not likely to begin anytime soon.  A cool, wet spring delayed soybean planting in much of the province and cooler temperatures in August and September have pushed harvest back this fall compared to the last two years.  As... Thu, 14 Sep 2017 17:42:42 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-14-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Best Management Practices for Late Planted Winter Wheat</strong></p> <p>With many soybean fields across the countryside just starting to change colour, harvest is not likely to begin anytime soon.  A cool, wet spring delayed soybean planting in much of the province and cooler temperatures in August and September have pushed harvest back this fall compared to the last two years.  As a result, growers are wondering whether or not they will be able to get winter wheat planted at an optimum time.</p> <p>With winter wheat having huge benefits to a cropping system (an additional 10 bu/ac to the following corn crop and an additional 5 bu/ac to the following soybean crop) growers are encouraged to keep winter wheat in the rotation this fall if possible.  Delayed planting can result in lower yields so being diligent this fall with our best management practices for establishing the winter wheat crop will be very important to reduce the risk of significant yield loss.</p> <p><strong>Crop Rotation</strong></p> <p>Although the soybean crop may be delayed it is still important to follow a good crop rotation to get the greatest yield benefits.  If planting after soybeans is not possible, plant winter wheat after other crops such as edible beans, peas or canola.  If planting after silage corn, be sure to implement best management practices for fusarium head blight by selecting a variety that is moderately resistant to fusarium and apply a fungicide at the T3 timing.  Do not plant wheat after wheat as there are a number of disease issues including fusarium and take all that can negatively impact yield.</p> <p><strong>Variety Selection</strong></p> <p>When delayed planting is likely, select varieties with good winter survival. Delayed planting can result in reduced root development‎ and less tillers in the fall thereby increasing the risk of winterkill. 2017 data on winter survival, yield, disease resistance, lodging, etc. for winter wheat varieties grown in Ontario is now available on the Ontario Cereal Crop Committee website at GoCereals.ca.   When looking at the data, select varieties that perform well in your area across a number of sites and years. Use high quality seed with excellent germination as well as a seed treatment to help protect against seedling diseases.</p> <p><strong>Plant Population</strong></p> <p>The optimum date to seed winter wheat varies across the province.  In southwestern Ontario the optimum date is mid-October, south-central Ontario mid-late September, central Ontario mid-September and eastern Ontario early September (Figure 1).  At the optimum timing, winter wheat should be seeded at 1.4 &#8211; 1.5 million seeds/acre.  This can very slightly depending on the variety so check the label for the particular variety you want to grow.  When planting is delayed, reduced tillering needs to be compensated for.  Therefore, you should increase the seeding rate by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre for every week you delay planting.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14181" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-1024x871.png" alt="Figure 1: Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario, OMAFRA Pub 811." width="1024" height="871" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-1024x871.png 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-300x255.png 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-768x653.png 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1.png 1164w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1</strong>: Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario, OMAFRA Pub 811.</p> <p><strong>Starter Fertilizer</strong></p> <p>Winter wheat is very responsive to starter fertilizer and phosphorus fertilization in particular.  It provides nutrients for early growth and promotes root development.   Past Ontario research has shown that seed-placed starter fertilizer increases yields, on average, by 7.5 bu/ac (Table 1).  Starter fertilizer becomes even more critical when winter wheat planting is delayed as it also improves winter survival and crop uniformity the following spring.  Without starter fertilizer the winter wheat crop may be uneven resulting in challenges with disease management, specifically when trying to manage fusarium head blight.  Apply starter fertilizer to the winter wheat crop based on an accredited Ontario soil test.</p> <p><strong>Table 1</strong>: Yield Response to Starter Fertilizer – Johnson, McClure, Janovicek 2010–2013 – OMAFRA Pub 811.</p> <table width="673"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="2" width="112"><strong>Fertilizer</strong></p> <p><strong>(In furrow)</strong></td> <td rowspan="2" width="102"><strong>P Applied</strong></td> <td colspan="3" width="459"><strong>Yield Increase over Check</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="151"><strong>Soil Test P 6-13 ppm<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>(10 sites )</strong></td> <td width="155"><strong>Soil Test P 13-21 ppm<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>(9 sites)</strong></td> <td width="153"><strong>Soil Test P 21-56 ppm<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>(9 sites)</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="5" width="673"><strong>Liquid 6-24-6</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">10 US gal/acre</td> <td width="102">27lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">12.0%</td> <td width="155">6.2%</td> <td width="153">3.3%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">5 US gal/acre</td> <td width="102">12 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">9.7%</td> <td width="155">2.7%</td> <td width="153">1.8%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">2.5 US gal/acre</td> <td width="102">7 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">6.3%</td> <td width="155">2.9%</td> <td width="153">0.9%</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="5" width="673"><strong>Dry 7-34-20</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">50 lb/ac</td> <td width="102">17 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">10.9%</td> <td width="155">4.7%</td> <td width="153">3.5%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">150 lb/ac</td> <td width="102">52 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">17.3%</td> <td width="155">6.2%</td> <td width="153">4.8%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">200 lb/ac</td> <td width="102">68 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">12%</td> <td width="155">3.5%</td> <td width="153">4.6%</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" width="213"><strong>Average Check Yield</strong></td> <td width="151">79 bu/ac</td> <td width="155">88.5 bu/ac</td> <td width="153">89 bu/ac</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><sup>1</sup>Plant available P based on accredited Ontario soil test.</p> <p><strong>Table 2.  September 6 &#8211; 12, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14182" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_t1.jpg" alt="Table 2. September 6 - 12, 2017 Weather Data" width="540" height="435" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_t1.jpg 540w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_t1-300x242.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 540px) 100vw, 540px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-14-2017/feed/ 0 2017-09-14 17:42 +00:00 2017-09-14 13:42 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14176 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-7-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 7, 2017 Gauging Corn Growth Stage for Frost Risks With a later than normal planting window and a summer growing season seemingly short on summer weather, some growers have been monitoring their corn growth stages and asking about gauging the risks associated with corn maturity and frost, particularly those who planted very late or have longer maturity hybrids. While there are still... Fri, 08 Sep 2017 13:57:52 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-7-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Gauging Corn Growth Stage for Frost Risks</strong></p> <p>With a later than normal planting window and a summer growing season seemingly short on summer weather, some growers have been monitoring their corn growth stages and asking about gauging the risks associated with corn maturity and frost, particularly those who planted very late or have longer maturity hybrids. While there are still several weeks left to the growing season, a few things growers trying to gauge their crop stage for frost risk may want to consider include:</p> <p><strong>Crop Staging</strong></p> <p>Clearly, the closer to maturity (black layer) the crop is, the less impact a frost event will have on the crop. For quick review:</p> <p>The emergence of silks is the R1 stage. As a rough guideline, once pollination occurs, it takes about 60 more days for the crop to reach physiological maturity. Thus, silk timing can give a bit of an indication of when maturity of the corn crop may be expected – a crop that pollinated around July 25<sup>th</sup> may be expected to reach maturity or black layer sometime around September 25<sup>th</sup>. While there can be some small differences across hybrid maturities, hybrid maturity ratings have a much more significant impact on the length of time in vegetative stages than reproductive stages.</p> <p>The R2 blister stage occurs following pollination when fertilized kernels are just beginning to develop, while the R3 milk stage occurs when kernels are turning yellow and are beginning to fill with an opaque milky fluid. Grain fill is rapid by the R3 stage, and maturity under normal conditions would be 5-6 weeks away.</p> <p>The R4 dough stage occurs when the milk solution turns pasty as starch continues to form, with some kernels beginning to dent as dough begins to turn to hard starch at the dent ends of kernels. Under normal conditions, the dough stage may be generally 3-5 weeks from maturity.</p> <p>The R5 dent stage occurs when the majority of kernels have dented, and the milk line, which separates the hard starch phase from the soft dough phase, progresses from the dent end towards the cob. The dent stage may last approximately 3 weeks.</p> <p>The R6 maturity or black layer stage marks physiological maturity. This occurs when a small layer of cells at the base of the kernel near where the kernel connects to the cob die and turn black, which marks the end of grain fill from the cob into the developing kernel. Maximum dry matter accumulation has occurred, so any frost or stress event after this stage will have little impact on yield unless harvestability is compromised. Black layer normally forms once milk line has reach the base of the kernel, although significant stress events (extended period of very cool average temperatures, significant defoliation) can result in black layer formation before the milk line has reached the base of the kernel.</p> <p><strong>Frost Severity</strong></p> <p>In regards to frost severity, a light frost (ie. 0°C) may damage or kill leaves, but not be cold enough, or last long enough to actually penetrate into the stem and kill the plant. While premature leaf death limits further grain fill from photosynthesis, a living stem can still translocate dry matter to the developing grain to continue to provide some grain fill after a light frost event.</p> <p>In the event where temperatures are low enough (ie. -2°C), or last long enough to penetrate and kill the entire plant, there is no ability of the plant to continue filling grain, and yield at that point has been fixed.</p> <p>Any frost event during the blister or milk stage would result in significant grain yield losses as significant grain fill is still yet to occur at these stages.</p> <p>A light frost event at the dough stage may reduce yields by 35% while a killing frost may reduce yields by 55% (Lauer, 2004).</p> <p>Yield loss in the dent stage depends on the relative time left to mature. A light frost at the beginning of dent stage may reduce yields by 25% while a killing frost may reduce yields by 40%. During the mid-dent stage, significant dry matter accumulation has occurred, and light and killing frosts may reduce yields around 5% and 10% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Estimating Time to Maturity</strong></p> <p>Time required to reach maturity can be estimated by knowing the approximate Crop Heat Units (CHU) required for each reproductive corn stage. A general approximation of CHU required to complete the various R growth stages in corn is presented in Table 1. Scouting corn for the crop stages described above and referring to Table 1 will give an indication of how many CHU are required for the corn crop to reach maturity.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.</strong> CHU Required to Complete Corn Reproductive Stages and Reach Maturity</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="111">Stage</td> <td width="189">CHU To Complete Crop Stage</td> <td width="113">CHU to Maturity</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R1 – Silking</td> <td width="189">340</td> <td width="113">1315</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R2 – Blister</td> <td width="189">175</td> <td width="113">975</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R3 – Milk</td> <td width="189">165</td> <td width="113">800</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R4 – Dough</td> <td width="189">310</td> <td width="113">635</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R5 &#8211; Dent</td> <td width="189">325</td> <td width="113">325</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R6 &#8211; Maturity</td> <td width="189">0</td> <td width="113">0</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Source: OMAFRA Pub 811 <em>Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</em></p> <p>Comparing the estimated CHU required from Table 2 to an estimated number of CHU available until typical first frost date gives an idea of how much CHU would be available in an “average” year, and how close to maturity the crop may be for the average expected first frost date. Typical first killing frost dates based on 30 year climate normal across a selection of locations in the Province are presented in Table 2, while CHU values can be estimated through calculation tables in the <em>Field Scouting</em> chapter of Pub 811 <em>Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</em>, or through other weather information providers such as Farmzone.com or WeatherCentral.ca.</p> <p><strong>Table 2.</strong> Average long-term first killing frost dates at select locations in Ontario.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="111">Stage</td> <td width="189">Average First Killing Frost Date</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Ridgetown</td> <td width="189">October 10</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Exeter</td> <td width="189">October 3</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Elora</td> <td width="189">September 26</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Lindsay</td> <td width="189">September 26</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Ottawa</td> <td width="189">September 29</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><br /> References</strong></p> <p>Lauer, J. 2004. Guidelines for Handling Corn Damaged by Frost Prior to Grain Maturity. University of Wisconsin. Accessed at http://corn.agronomy.wisc.edu/WCM/W156.aspx.</p> <p><strong>Table 3.  August 30 &#8211; September 5, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14177" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_07_2017_t1.jpg" alt="August 30 - September 5, 2017 Weather Data" width="538" height="429" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_07_2017_t1.jpg 538w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_07_2017_t1-300x239.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 538px) 100vw, 538px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-7-2017/feed/ 0 2017-09-08 13:57 +00:00 2017-09-08 09:57 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14172 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/soil-fertility-benefits-of-wheat-in-rotation/ Soil Fertility Winter Wheat soil fertility wheat Soil fertility benefits of wheat in rotation Before long, the 2018 winter wheat crop will be seeded across the province (Figure 1). Long-term research at the University of Guelph’s Ridgetown campus shows that winter wheat in rotation provides an additional 10 bushels per acre to corn and 5 bushels to soybeans. At current crop prices, that means an extra 107 dollars per acre over a rotation. What... Tue, 05 Sep 2017 14:44:10 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/soil-fertility-benefits-of-wheat-in-rotation/#respond Jake Munroe <div class="pf-content"><p>Before long, the 2018 winter wheat crop will be seeded across the province (Figure 1). Long-term research at the University of Guelph’s Ridgetown campus shows that winter wheat in rotation provides an additional 10 bushels per acre to corn and 5 bushels to soybeans. At current crop prices, that means an extra 107 dollars per acre over a rotation.</p> <div class="mceTemp"></div> <div id="attachment_14173" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14173" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-300x225.jpg" alt="A field of winter wheat in Perth County, April 2017" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1. Winter wheat field in Perth County, April 2017</p></div> <p><strong>What other benefits does wheat provide? And how might having wheat in rotation be positive from a soil fertility perspective? </strong></p> <p>Firstly, <strong>wheat in rotation improves the nitrogen use efficiency of corn</strong>. Recent research from the long-term rotation and tillage system trial in Ridgetown demonstrates that winter wheat in rotation reduces the maximum economic rate of nitrogen, or MERN, for corn. Between 2009 and 2013, the average MERN was 16 to 30 lbs/ac less with wheat compared to a corn-soybean rotation; in other words, it took less nitrogen to produce more corn.</p> <p>Wheat also <strong>provides an opportunity to seed a cover crop</strong>. In the case of red clover (Figure 2), the economics are clear: a full stand of red clover provides a nitrogen credit of 65-80 lbs per acre to the following corn crop. If red clover establishment is difficult, another cover crop, such as oats, can be seeded. Although oats will not provide any nitrogen, its fibrous root system will set up the next crop with improved soil structure – this is particularly helpful in dry years, where a good root system is critical for nutrient uptake.</p> <div id="attachment_14174" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14174" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-300x169.jpg" alt="Red clover cover crop" width="300" height="169" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-768x432.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-1024x576.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-910x512.jpg 910w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2. Red clover cover crop</p></div> <p>Winter wheat in rotation is also <strong>beneficial from a soil organic matter standpoint</strong>. Ontario research has generally found that the more frequently a small grain like wheat is in rotation, the higher the soil organic matter. Roots and belowground residue tend to contribute more to stable organic matter than aboveground residue, which may explain the positive effect of deep-rooted wheat. Organic matter is an important source of nutrients such as nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and boron.</p> <p>Finally, having winter wheat in rotation <strong>provides an excellent opportunity to address soil test levels</strong>. Use the period after wheat harvest to take soil samples. If you have soil test levels that have slipped in the last number of years, post-wheat harvest is an excellent time to make a nutrient application.</p> <p>A recent review of decades’ worth of Ontario research has shown that when soil test phosphorus is within the range of 12-18 ppm (Olsen), starter fertilizer rates (i.e. 20-30 lbs P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/acre) achieve the most economic response for field crops. The same is true for potassium when levels are between 100-130 ppm. More recent research from OMAFRA/University of Guelph long term P and K trials suggest that slightly higher soil test values (e.g. &gt;20 ppm P and &gt;120 ppm K) may be worth pursuing in some circumstances.</p> <p>Regardless of your field&#8217;s soil fertility status or your fertility plan, broadcast fertilizer applications made in the summer after wheat harvest are at <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/">much lower risk</a> for environmental losses relative to applications made in the late fall.</p> <p>There you have it – a few more reasons to keep wheat as a regular part of your crop rotation.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/soil-fertility-benefits-of-wheat-in-rotation/feed/ 0 2017-09-05 14:44 +00:00 2017-09-05 10:44 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14164 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/ Uncategorized Ontario Field Crop Report – August 31, 2017 Managing Phosphorus to Reduce Losses Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. Sufficient phosphorus fertility means improved root growth and winter hardiness, accelerated maturity, and improved yields. However, when phosphorus makes its way off of fields through runoff or tile drains, it can negatively impact the health of rivers and lakes. Lake Erie is the strongest example of this locally.... Thu, 31 Aug 2017 18:08:28 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Managing Phosphorus to Reduce Losses</strong></p> <p>Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. Sufficient phosphorus fertility means improved root growth and winter hardiness, accelerated maturity, and improved yields. However, when phosphorus makes its way off of fields through runoff or tile drains, it can negatively impact the health of rivers and lakes. Lake Erie is the strongest example of this locally. We have the knowledge and tools to minimize the risk of phosphorus loss while optimizing crop production. There are opportunities this fall to make simple decisions that will lower the risk of P leaving your fields.</p> <p>Phosphorus is not very mobile in the soil. It may move only millimeters in a given season. For years, it was thought that P is held so tightly to soil that it is only lost when there is soil erosion. We now know that there are also situations in which dissolved forms of phosphorus can be lost. These include runoff shortly after fertilizer or manure application or sub-surface drainage on soils with very high concentrations of P near the surface. The loss of dissolved P can be as or more important than the loss of soil-bound phosphorus, since it is a more potent form and it stimulates harmful algae more strongly.</p> <p>Ontario research to-date shows that the majority of phosphorus loss occurs during the non-growing season (October-April), often during a handful of events, including snowmelt (Figure 1.). At these times of year, rain that falls and snow that melts is less likely to infiltrate into the soil due to saturated or frozen conditions. Any water that runs off the surface of the soil will carry some P with it. Tile drains can also be a source of phosphorus. For phosphorus to be lost from tile drains it has to move with water through macropores such as cracks (Figure 2.) and earthworm burrows.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14165" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg" alt="The effects of spring runoff on a farm field in the 2017. The soil lost to water erosion carries phosphorus with it." width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1.</strong>  The effects of spring runoff on a farm field in the 2017. The soil lost to water erosion carries phosphorus with it.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14166" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2.jpg" alt="Cracking in a Brookston clay loam soil." width="831" height="746" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2.jpg 831w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2-300x269.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2-768x689.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 831px) 100vw, 831px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 2.</strong>  Cracking in a Brookston clay loam soil.</p> <p><strong>Best practices to reduce the risk of phosphorus loss</strong></p> <p>Fertilizer and manure application timing have a large impact on the risk of phosphorus loss. Applications in late summer (e.g. August or September) generally have a low risk of loss. This is because evaporation is high and soils are drier and more likely to absorb rainfall than have it runoff at this time of year. If a broadcast application of P fertilizer is planned, target harvested wheat fields in the next few weeks. Risk of phosphorus loss becomes much greater in the fall, particularly into November and December.</p> <p>Placement of phosphorus is also critical for reducing risk of loss. Sub-surface banded phosphorus represents the lowest risk. The chance of banded P moving is almost nil. Incorporation reduces the risk of dissolved phosphorus loss from fertilizer or manure application, but must be weighed against the risk of soil erosion. Light incorporation followed a cover crop seeding (e.g. rye) is an example of a strategy to minimize both the risk of dissolved P and soil loss. Phosphorus broadcast and left on the surface late in fall is a high risk practice.</p> <p>Other strategies to improve placement of phosphorus include applying fertilizer with strip tillage operations or banding P at planting. Producers throughout the province are using these approaches with success (Figures 3 &amp; 4). By applying at least a portion of phosphorus in a strip or band, you can reduce tie-up in the soil and increase efficiency of uptake. In the case of strip till, the P is incorporated and protected and most of the soil is left undisturbed, which can reduce erosion. These practices are a win-win for your bottom line and the environment.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14167" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-1024x576.jpg" alt="Fertilizer is banded using a dry fertilizer unit during corn planting in Eastern Ontario, 2017 (Photo: W. Schneckenburger)" width="1024" height="576" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-1024x576.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-768x432.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-910x512.jpg 910w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3.jpg 1600w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 3.</strong>  Fertilizer is banded using a dry fertilizer unit during corn planting in Eastern Ontario, 2017 (Photo: W. Schneckenburger)</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14168" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-1024x768.jpg" alt="Figure 4. An air cart is used for multiple purposes, including banding fertilizer, on this farm in Essex county (Photo: H. Denotter)" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4.jpg 1600w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 4.</strong>  An air cart is used for multiple purposes, including banding fertilizer, on this farm in Essex county (Photo: H. Denotter)</p> <p>Finally, consider practices that improve water infiltration. Although losses of phosphorus through tile drains can play a significant role in Ontario, surface runoff is still the biggest risk factor on many soil types. Diverse crop rotations, cover crops and reduced tillage are all practices that improve infiltration and reduce erosion and runoff of phosphorus. When used together, such best practices not only reduce risk of P loss but also improve your bottom line.</p> <p><em>For more information on managing phosphorus effectively, consider attending </em><a href="https://www.eventbrite.ca/e/the-dirt-on-phosphorus-tickets-32954743525"><em>“The Dirt of Phosphorus”</em></a><em> on Friday, September 15<sup>th</sup> from 8am to 5pm at the North Huron Wescast Community Centre Arena in Wingham.</em></p> <p><strong>Table 1.   August 23-29, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14169" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_t1.jpg" alt="Table 1. August 23-29, 2017 Weather Data" width="538" height="429" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_t1.jpg 538w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_t1-300x239.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 538px) 100vw, 538px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/feed/ 0 2017-08-31 18:08 +00:00 2017-08-31 14:08 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14151 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-24-2017/ Crop Reports bean leaf beetle soybean aphids western bean cutworm WHITE MOULD Ontario Field Crop Report – August 24, 2017 With the delay in growing degree day accumulation and crop maturity, many fields are still in the ideal growth stages that put them at risk of some of our later season pests and diseases. Western bean cutworm (WBC) Peak moth flight for western bean cutworm has finally passed for all regions of the province. Central and eastern counties were the... Thu, 24 Aug 2017 13:22:43 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-24-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>With the delay in growing degree day accumulation and crop maturity, many fields are still in the ideal growth stages that put them at risk of some of our later season pests and diseases.</p> <p><strong>Western bean cutworm (WBC)</strong></p> <p>Peak moth flight for western bean cutworm has finally passed for all regions of the province. Central and eastern counties were the last to reach peak during the second week of August. Peak egg laying follows shortly after peak moth flight. Fields in central and eastern Ontario are also delayed. Fields in southern Ontario should be scouted for egg masses and larval activity. An insecticide application is warranted if thresholds are reached and there are still fresh silks present on the ears. Dry beans also should be scouted now that pods are present. WBC are difficult to scout for in dry beans, therefore focus on looking for their pod feeding instead.<span id="more-14151"></span> If small holes are easy to find in a field, a spray application can effectively control the larvae and reduce the risk of reduced seed quality and picks caused by WBC. For more information on scouting and thresholds, go to <a href="http://www.cornpest.ca">www.cornpest.ca</a>.</p> <p><strong>Bean leaf beetle (BLB)</strong></p> <p>First generation adults are a concern in food grade, Identity Preserved (IP), seed soybeans and edible beans across Ontario this time of year.  Bean leaf beetle can cause defoliation but rarely does leaf feeding reach threshold and impact yield.  The real risk is the pod feeding they can do, as the holes open the pods up to the development of pod diseases, impacting seed quality (Fig. 1). BLB can directly impact yield by clipping pods off of the plants. Food grade, IP, seed soybean and dry bean fields in the R4 to early R6 stages should be assessed for pod damage and clipping. If 10% of the soybean pods inspected within a field have feeding injury, a spray is warranted. With the higher value and stringent quality standards in dry edible beans, if 5%–8% of the pods inspected have feeding scars, control may be necessary. If pods are being clipped and found on the ground, an application is also warranted. Ensure that adults are still presently active in the field before a spray is applied and consider pre-harvest harvest intervals before making a spray decision.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14152" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14152" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg" alt="Figure 1: Bean leaf beetle pod damage. (Photo by H Bohner, OMAFRA)" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1: Bean leaf beetle pod damage (Photo by H Bohner, OMAFRA)</p></div> <p><strong>Soybean aphids</strong><strong> (SBA)</strong></p> <p>Soybean aphids are reaching thresholds in some fields, particularly in eastern Ontario. The milder weather is ideal for aphid development, though hopefully with the dewy mornings, some entomopathogens will start to develop. Fields are at risk until the early R6 stage of soybeans when more aphids are needed before control is warranted and pre-harvest intervals become a concern. The threshold for soybean aphids is 250 aphids per plant and actively increasing on 80% of the plants from the R1 up to and including the R5 stage of soybeans. Natural enemies play a big role in taking soybean aphids down below threshold, especially when aphid populations hover close to the threshold. The free Aphid Advisor app at <a href="http://www.aphidapp.com">www.aphidapp.com</a>, can help you make a spray decision. Enter the number of aphids per plant, as well as the various natural enemies observed in each field. The app will take into consideration the potential population growth rate of the aphids based on the weather forecast for your location, and compare it with the potential number of aphids that the current natural enemy population can consume and decide if they are able to keep the aphids below threshold or whether a spray is necessary.</p> <p><strong>White mould</strong></p> <p>White mould symptoms are showing up in many soybean and dry edible bean fields in the province (Fig. 2 &amp; 3). It is still early to assess the impact that infection can have on yield but research has shown fungicide applications beyond the R4 soybean stage do not limit further disease development.  In addition to causing yield loss, white mould can affect seed quality and seed production. Taking accurate notes about where and how much white mould occurs in each soybean field is important for future disease management planning. Tracking disease levels across years also will help determine the potential sclerotia (inoculum) load that may be present in a particular field. Recording disease and yield performance for different varieties will help in future variety selection for fields with a history of white mould.</p> <p>For more information on white mould and other soybean/corn diseases refer to the Crop Protection Network (<a href="http://cropprotectionnetwork.org">cropprotectionnetwork.org</a>) publications on the GFO website at <a href="http://gfo.ca/Production/Production-Resources">http://gfo.ca/Production/Production-Resources</a>.</p> <p>For more information on the control options available for these pests and diseases, refer to the Field Crop Protection Guide at: <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html</a></p> <div id="attachment_14154" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14154" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg" alt="Figure 2. White mould field symptoms (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2. White mould field symptoms (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14156" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14156" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-1024x683.jpg" alt="Figure 3. White mould infection on stems and sclerotia (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)" width="1024" height="683" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-1024x683.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-300x200.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-768x512.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 3. White mould infection on stems and sclerotia (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)</p></div> <p><strong>Table 1.   August 16-22, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14158" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Weather-Data-Aug-16-22.png" alt="Weather Data Aug 16-22" width="599" height="448" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Weather-Data-Aug-16-22.png 599w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Weather-Data-Aug-16-22-300x224.png 300w" sizes="(max-width: 599px) 100vw, 599px" /></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-24-2017/feed/ 0 2017-08-24 13:22 +00:00 2017-08-24 09:22 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14133 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/ Baute Bug Blog Soybean Trochanter mealybug Keeping an eye out for Trochanter mealybugs in soybean Author: Julia Mlynarek, Research Scientist &#8211; Field Entomology, AAFC-Harrow The Trochanter mealybugs Pseudococcus sorghiellus (Forbes) are small (at most 2mm), whitish, wax-covered insects that feed on plant roots (Fig. 1). Because of their size and life history, they are often overlooked but have been found in Southwestern Ontario. Trochanter mealybugs are part of a family of unarmored, scale insects that... Mon, 21 Aug 2017 21:42:34 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p><em><strong>Author: Julia Mlynarek, Research Scientist &#8211; Field Entomology, AAFC-Harrow</strong></em></p> <p>The Trochanter mealybugs <em>Pseudococcus</em> <em>sorghiellus</em> (Forbes) are small (at most 2mm), whitish, wax-covered insects that feed on plant roots (Fig. 1). Because of their size and life history, they are often overlooked but have been found in Southwestern Ontario. Trochanter mealybugs are part of a family of unarmored, scale insects that enjoy moist climates (Mani and Shivaraju 2016).</p> <div id="attachment_14134" style="width: 993px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/fig-1-mealybug-k-sim/" rel="attachment wp-att-14134"><img class="size-full wp-image-14134" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg" alt="Close up picture of a Fig. 1. Trochanter mealybug feeding on Soybean roots. (credit: K. Sim)" width="983" height="716" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg 983w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim-300x219.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim-768x559.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 983px) 100vw, 983px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1. Close up picture of a Trochanter mealybug feeding on Soybean roots. (credit: K. Sim)</p></div> <p>More specifically, Trochanter mealybugs are root mealybugs and usually go unnoticed because they live and feed on the roots of soybeans (Fig. 2) and many other plants such as alfalfa, red and white clover, and corn. The affected soybeans may look like they have a potassium deficiency with yellowed leaf margins and/or stunted growth (Mani and Shivaraju 2016). It is native to the United States where it is considered a pest. There have been sightings of this species in Southwestern Ontario for a few years but have only been found in small patches and thus do not seem to cause much harm.</p> <div id="attachment_14135" style="width: 718px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/fig-2-mealybug-k-sim/" rel="attachment wp-att-14135"><img class="size-full wp-image-14135" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg" alt="Figure 2: Trochanter mealybugs on a soybean root. (credit: K. Sim)" width="708" height="1369" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg 708w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim-155x300.jpg 155w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim-530x1024.jpg 530w" sizes="(max-width: 708px) 100vw, 708px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2: Trochanter mealybugs on a soybean root. (credit: K. Sim)</p></div> <p>When mealybugs are young, they can move short distances from one plant to the next quite easily. They can also move with irrigation water; the waxy covering on their bodies helps them survive in water but their dispersal ability is quite limited (Mani and Shivaraju 2016).</p> <p>This summer, probably because of the wet spring, the Trochanter mealybug has been sighted in a soybean field in Harrow as well as a field near Chatham (O. Wally Pers. Comm.). Because of its patchy distribution and the fact that it does not seem to be doing much damage there is no need to panic but keeping an eye out for them is a good idea so that the distribution of this species can be monitored in the region.  If, in your field, you see a patch of stunted soybean plants or think they may have potassium deficiency, pull out one of those plants and check the roots (Fig. 2). If there are oval waxy insects crawling around on the roots or in the soil surrounding it, you will know that there are trochanter mealybugs in that patch and your plants do not have a potassium deficiency.</p> <p>If you do find the Trochanter mealybug in your fields, please do not hesitate to contact me (<a href="mailto:julia.mlynarek@canada.ca">julia.mlynarek@canada.ca</a> or 519-738-1227).</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/feed/ 0 2017-08-21 21:42 +00:00 2017-08-21 17:42 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14114 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-yet-for-late-season-pests-like-bean-leaf-beetle/ Baute Bug Blog Edible Beans Soybean Uncategorized bean leaf beetle soybean aphids stink bugs tarnished plant bug The Season is Not Over Yet for Late Season Pests Like Bean Leaf Beetle, Soybean Aphids and Others Despite it being the middle of August, some pests are not showing signs of wrapping this season up. Bean leaf beetle are a particular concern in food grade IP and seed soybeans and edible beans across Ontario.  As are pod piercing pests like stink bugs and tarnished plant bugs. Soybean aphids are also increasing in numbers, particularly in fields in... Fri, 18 Aug 2017 15:48:20 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-yet-for-late-season-pests-like-bean-leaf-beetle/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p>Despite it being the middle of August, some pests are not showing signs of wrapping this season up. <strong>Bean leaf beetle</strong> are a particular concern in food grade IP and seed soybeans and edible beans across Ontario.  As are pod piercing pests like<strong> stink bugs</strong> and <strong>tarnished plant bugs</strong>. <strong>Soybean aphids</strong> are also increasing in numbers, particularly in fields in Eastern Ontario. So scouting is not over yet , I am afraid.</p> <div id="attachment_14122" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-for-late-season-pests-of-late-season-pests/image-6-bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-h-bohner-omafra/" rel="attachment wp-att-14122"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14122" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-300x225.jpg" alt="Bean leaf beetle pod damage. Photo credit: H Bohner, OMAFRA" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Bean leaf beetle pod damage. H Bohner, OMAFRA</p></div> <p><strong><em>Bean leaf beetle</em> </strong>can feed on the leaves, although the defoliation they do rarely reach threshold levels to impact yield this time of year. It is their pod feeding that can be a concern, especially in the later R stages of pods.  Pod feeding can open the pods up to the development of pod diseases, impacting quality. Bean leaf beetle can also clip pods off of the plants which can have a direct impact to yield.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Scouting and Thresholds: </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>For R4–R6 Stage of IP, Food Grade and Seed Soybean and Dry Bean Fields &#8211;</strong> Assess 20 plants in five areas of the field. Avoid the field edge. Determine the percent defoliation and the number of pods damaged or clipped off and make note of the presence of adults.</p> <p style="padding-left: 60px;"><strong>For Soybeans:</strong> If 10% of the pods on the plants have feeding injury AND the beetles are still active in the field, a spray is warranted.  If pods are being clipped and found on the ground, an application is warranted if beetles are still active in the field. Consider days to harvest intervals before making a spray decision.</p> <p style="padding-left: 60px;"><strong>For Dry Beans</strong>: With higher value and stringent quality standards in dry edible beans, if 5%–8% of the pods inspected have feeding scars, control may be necessary. If pods are being clipped and found on the ground, an application is also warranted. Ensure that adults are still presently active in the field before a spray is applied.  Consider days to harvest intervals before making a spray decision.</p> <div id="attachment_14123" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-for-late-season-pests-of-late-season-pests/image-1b-brown-stink-bug-adult-baute/" rel="attachment wp-att-14123"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14123" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-300x211.jpg" alt="Brown stink bug on soybeans. T. Baute, OMAFRA" width="300" height="211" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-300x211.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-768x541.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-1024x721.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Brown stink bug on soybeans. T. Baute, OMAFRA</p></div> <p><em><strong>Stink bugs</strong></em> and <em><strong>tarnished plant bugs</strong></em> feed directly on pods and seeds. Both the adults and nymphs have piercing and sucking mouthparts for removing plant fluids. They inject digestive enzymes into the seeds, causing the seed to dimple or shrivel, resulting in picks. The feeding wound provides an avenue for diseases to gain entry into the pod. Seed quality is reduced. Indirect effects can include delayed maturity — green bean syndrome —of injured plants, though stink bugs are not the only cause for green bean syndrome.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Scouting and Thresholds:  </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">Take 20 sweep samples (in a 180° arc sweep) in five areas of the field. Determine the average number of adults and nymphs<br /> per sweep by dividing the total count by 100.<strong><br /> </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Stink bugs in Soybeans &#8211; </strong>Control may also be necessary in identity preserved (IP) food-grade and seed soybeans in R4 to early R6 stage,<br /> if an average of or 0.2 bugs per sweep is found (or 20 bugs in 100 sweeps). Even in crush beans, control may be warranted if an average of<br /> 0.4 adults or nymphs per sweep is found during the R4 to early R6 stages of soybeans.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Tarnished plant bug (TPB) in Dry Beans &#8211;</strong> Treatment may be required when an average of one to two tarnished plant bugs (nymphs<br /> or adults) per sweep is found during the pod stages.</p> <div id="attachment_14125" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-for-late-season-pests-of-late-season-pests/c7-ladybeetle/" rel="attachment wp-att-14125"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14125" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-300x225.jpg" alt="Seven spotted lady beetle feeding on soybean aphids. T. Baute, OMAFRA" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Seven spotted lady beetle feeding on soybean aphids. T. Baute, OMAFRA</p></div> <p><strong><em>Soybean aphids </em></strong>are increasing in numbers per plant, particularly in Eastern Ontario.  Some fields in southern Ontario have experienced a significant drop in aphid numbers, likely in part due to natural enemies.</p> <p><strong>Scouting and Thresholds:  </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">Fields that have aphids present should be scouted every 7–10 days until the crop is well into the R6 stage of soybeans. Scout fields more frequently (every 3–4 days) as aphid populations approach the threshold. Look at 20–30 random plants across the field. Avoid field edges. Estimate the number of aphids per plant in that field and the abundance of natural enemies present. A minimum of two field visits is required to confirm that aphid populations are increasing. The threshold for soybean aphids is 250 aphids per plant and actively increasing on 80% of the plants from the R1 up to and including the R5 stage of soybeans.  More aphids per plant are needed once soybeans are in the R6 stage. Beyond the early R6 stage, economic return from any insecticide application is not likely and pre-harvest intervals have been reached.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">Natural enemies play a big role in taking soybean aphids down below threshold, especially when aphid pops are just hovering below or above the threshold. Making observations of natural enemy presence can help you determine if a spray will be necessary. Use the free <a href="http://www.aphidapp.com/" target="_blank">Aphid Advisor app</a>, plugging in the number of aphids you see, as well as natural enemies. The app will calculate the number of aphids that will be fed on based on the natural enemy and aphid population and determine if a spray is necessary.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">For more information on any of these pests and registered products, please refer to the <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/p811toc.html" target="_blank">Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</a>. the <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html" target="_blank">Field Crop Protection Guide</a> and the <a href="http://gfo.ca/apps" target="_blank">Pest Manager App.</a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-yet-for-late-season-pests-like-bean-leaf-beetle/feed/ 0 2017-08-18 15:48 +00:00 2017-08-18 11:48 -04:00