Field Crop News http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13457 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/what-is-the-impact-of-erosion-on-soil-fertility/ Soil Fertility Soil Health erosion soil fertility What is the Impact of Erosion on Soil Fertility? It is National Soil Conservation Week this week, so I thought it would be a good opportunity to look at the impact of erosion on soils in Ontario over the past few months. Throughout the middle of April we’ve had some intense rain events. We had a mild winter this year in southwestern Ontario, with little snow cover, and had... Fri, 21 Apr 2017 22:22:17 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/what-is-the-impact-of-erosion-on-soil-fertility/#respond Jake Munroe <div class="pf-content"><p>It is <a href="http://www.soilcc.ca/soilsweek/2017/soilsweek2017.php">National Soil Conservation Week</a> this week, so I thought it would be a good opportunity to look at the impact of erosion on soils in Ontario over the past few months.</p> <p>Throughout the middle of April we’ve had some intense rain events. We had a mild winter this year in southwestern Ontario, with little snow cover, and had some very windy days. In some cases, water carried soil away (Figures 1 &amp; 2). In other cases, wind whipped it up and carried soil off of fields (Figure 3).</p> <p>Very soon the 2017 growing season will begin and these soil losses will be forgotten. But what was the impact of the soil that moved? What is the cost of the lost soil and fertility?</p> <div id="attachment_13458" style="width: 607px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13458" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Surface-runoff-Niagara-January-2017-300x225.jpg" alt="Figure 1. A long slope on a field near Port Colborne, Ontario in late January. With minimal residue cover, water picked up momentum and eroded soil along the entire length. " width="597" height="448" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Surface-runoff-Niagara-January-2017-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Surface-runoff-Niagara-January-2017-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Surface-runoff-Niagara-January-2017-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 597px) 100vw, 597px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1. A long slope on a field near Port Colborne, Ontario in late January. With minimal residue cover, water picked up momentum and eroded soil along the entire length.</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_13459" style="width: 296px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13459" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/P1240952-small-225x300.jpg" alt="Figure 2. Deep gully erosion on heavy clay soil in Haldimand county, April 2017. How much soil has been carried away?" width="286" height="381" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/P1240952-small-225x300.jpg 225w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/P1240952-small.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 286px) 100vw, 286px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2. Deep gully erosion on heavy clay soil in Haldimand county, April 2017. How much soil has been carried away?</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_13460" style="width: 218px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13460" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-blown-soil-in-Perth-county-March-2017-169x300.jpg" alt="Figure 3. Wind-blown topsoil on snow in Perth county, March 2017. Was this soil lost from a bare field or one with residue or plant cover?" width="208" height="370" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-blown-soil-in-Perth-county-March-2017-169x300.jpg 169w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-blown-soil-in-Perth-county-March-2017-768x1365.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-blown-soil-in-Perth-county-March-2017-576x1024.jpg 576w" sizes="(max-width: 208px) 100vw, 208px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 3. Wind-blown topsoil on snow in Perth county, March 2017. Was this soil lost from a bare field or one with residue or plant cover?</p></div> <p>During a very windy day in early March, topsoil in Kent county was blown into ditches to a depth of 1 to 3 feet in some locations (Figure 4).</p> <div id="attachment_13461" style="width: 788px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13461" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-erosion-LTVCA-March-8-2017-300x225.jpg" alt="Figure 4. What fertility has been lost from the field due to this wind erosion? Kent county, March 8, 2017 (Photo credit: Colin Little, Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority)." width="778" height="583" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-erosion-LTVCA-March-8-2017-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-erosion-LTVCA-March-8-2017-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Wind-erosion-LTVCA-March-8-2017-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 778px) 100vw, 778px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 4. What fertility has been lost from the field due to this wind erosion? Kent county, March 8, 2017. Photo: Colin Little, Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority.</p></div> <p>A sample of the wind-blown soil in a ditch was taken and sent away for fertility analysis. The numbers are presented below:</p> <table style="height: 112px" width="930"> <tbody> <tr style="height: 21.0349px"> <td style="width: 455.799px;height: 21.0349px"><strong>Nutrient</strong></td> <td style="width: 460.243px;height: 21.0349px"><strong>Value</strong></td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 455.799px;height: 21px">Organic Matter*</td> <td style="width: 460.243px;height: 21px">9.4%</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 455.799px;height: 21px">Phosphorus (Sodium bicarbonate/Olsen)</td> <td style="width: 460.243px;height: 21px">37 ppm</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 455.799px;height: 21px">Potassium</td> <td style="width: 460.243px;height: 21px">282 ppm</td> </tr> <tr style="height: 21px"> <td style="width: 455.799px;height: 21px">Magnesium</td> <td style="width: 460.243px;height: 21px">683 ppm</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>*Measured using the Walkley-Black method.</p> <p>In a part of the province where average soil organic matter levels are around 3.5%, this wind-blown soil was clearly coming from the most fertile portion of the soil – the soil surface.</p> <p>To borrow from Peter Johnson’s “Wheat Pete’s Word”, if we assume a land value of $20,000 per acre, each pound of topsoil is worth 1 cent (based on 2 million pounds of soil in the top six inches). If the thickness of a couple pieces of paper is lost from a field, it represents one tonne per acre, or $22, of soil loss. Of course, when the most fertile topsoil is lost, the value is even greater. Given the impact of organic matter, phosphorus and potassium on <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/phosphorus-and-potassium-management-for-corn-soybeans-and-wheat/">yield potential</a>, soil erosion can be costly.</p> <p>Fortunately, there are well proven solutions to minimize soil erosion. Here are examples of a few.</p> <div id="attachment_13468" style="width: 676px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13468" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/UTRCA-combined-photo-300x107.jpg" alt="Figure 7. Overwintering cover crops, such as cereal rye, can be very effective in holding soil in place, even under very intense rain. This rye, planted after sweet corn, is doing an excellent job holding soil on an erodible slope. " width="666" height="237" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/UTRCA-combined-photo-300x107.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/UTRCA-combined-photo-768x275.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/UTRCA-combined-photo.jpg 786w" sizes="(max-width: 666px) 100vw, 666px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 5. Overwintering cover crops, such as cereal rye, can be very effective in holding soil in place, even under very intense rain. This rye, planted after sweet corn, has held soil on an erodible slope. Photo: Upper Thames Region Conservation Authority.</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_13472" style="width: 593px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13472" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Tony-Penders-cereal-rye-April-13-2017-seeded-at-112-lbs-per-ac-after-corn-silage-1-300x225.jpg" alt="Figure 5. Cereal rye cover crop in Brant county, mid-April, 2017. Seeded after corn silage harvest to protect soil from water erosion that is typical on this field. It has been very effective." width="583" height="437" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Tony-Penders-cereal-rye-April-13-2017-seeded-at-112-lbs-per-ac-after-corn-silage-1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Tony-Penders-cereal-rye-April-13-2017-seeded-at-112-lbs-per-ac-after-corn-silage-1-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Tony-Penders-cereal-rye-April-13-2017-seeded-at-112-lbs-per-ac-after-corn-silage-1-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 583px) 100vw, 583px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 6. Cereal rye cover crop in Brant county, mid-April, 2017. Seeded after corn silage harvest to protect soil from water erosion that is typical on this field. It has done its job.</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_13469" style="width: 777px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13469" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Strip-till-in-corn-residue-300x169.jpg" alt="Figure 7. Fall strip till zones after corn harvest, Oxford county. Strip tillage is a tool to help reduce erosion risk by maintaining residue cover. It also allows for incorporation and placement of dry fertilizer." width="767" height="431" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Strip-till-in-corn-residue-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Strip-till-in-corn-residue-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Strip-till-in-corn-residue-910x512.jpg 910w" sizes="(max-width: 767px) 100vw, 767px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 7. Fall strip till zones after corn harvest, Oxford county. Strip tillage can help reduce erosion risk by maintaining residue cover. It also allows for incorporation and placement of dry fertilizer.</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_13470" style="width: 614px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><img class=" wp-image-13470" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/grassed-waterway-300x169.jpg" alt="Figure 9. Grassed waterways can be an effective method for minimizing water erosion in some fields. (Source: Jane Thomas, Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, ian.umces.edu/imagelibrary/)." width="604" height="340" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/grassed-waterway-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/grassed-waterway-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/grassed-waterway.jpg 712w" sizes="(max-width: 604px) 100vw, 604px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 8. Grassed waterways can also be an effective method for minimizing water erosion in some fields. (Source: Jane Thomas, Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, ian.umces.edu/imagelibrary/).</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>When soil is unprotected it can easily be lost, as we’ve seen this winter and spring. And all losses have a soil fertility impact – in some cases, it is greater than we might think.</p> <p>Cost-share opportunities, such <a href="http://www.ontariosoilcrop.org/oscia-programs/growing-forward-2/">Growing Forward 2</a> or the <a href="http://www.ontariosoilcrop.org/oscia-programs/glasi/farmland-health-incentive-program/">Farmland Health Incentive Program</a>, can help you get started to put practices in place to minimize erosion – and fertility losses – from your fields.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/what-is-the-impact-of-erosion-on-soil-fertility/feed/ 0 2017-04-21 22:22 +00:00 2017-04-21 18:22 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13464 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-19-2017/ Ag Business Minutes Simcoe Ag Breakfast Meeting Notes – April 19, 2017 WINTER WHEAT: Reports from across the region indicate that the wheat crop is looking good, with minimal damage reported on sites that are imperfectly drained and areas subject to ponding. September planted wheat is tillering nicely with later planted ground being not as far along.  Fields that received higher rates of starter or manure are doing exceptionally well, whereas areas... Fri, 21 Apr 2017 21:09:39 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-19-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>WINTER WHEAT:</p> <p>Reports from across the region indicate that the wheat crop is looking good, with minimal damage reported on sites that are imperfectly drained and areas subject to ponding.</p> <p>September planted wheat is tillering nicely with later planted ground being not as far along.  Fields that received higher rates of starter or manure are doing exceptionally well, whereas areas that did not get starter due to the planter running out before the end of the field are noticeable and much further behind.  Some heaving is noted due to shallow planting depth.</p> <p>Fields that received fall weed control look great, whereas even clean fields that weren’t sprayed are experiencing early weed pressure.  Some septoria pressure was noted.</p> <p>Clover went out early on the majority of fields, and much has emerged and is looking good.</p> <p>Lots of nitrogen is going out, with some agronomists promoting split application. However, to date it appears fewer producers are splitting their nitrogen application than did last year. Some fields are receiving sulphur at 12lbs/ac.</p> <p>CORN / SOYBEANS:</p> <p>Burn down herbicide application has started and ground has been drying down quickly, although there is more rain in the forecast.  Some tillage has begun on sandy soils.  Although sandy ground may appear fit for planting, soil temperatures are not high enough to begin corn and soybean planting at this time.</p> <p>Insecticide seed treatments were discussed.  On sandy soil, an estimated 90% of soybean seed is treated with insecticides, whereas on heavy clays only approximately 25% of soybean seed is treated in the region this year.  The majority of producers using treated soybean seed are opting for non-neonicotinoid options.  For corn, consensus was that upwards of 90% of seed is treated, with more than half of farmers using diamides rather than neonicotinoids.  Where producers were forced to reseed last year due to insect pressure, they continue to opt for treated seed.</p> <p>Grubs and wireworms will be an issue where soybeans are planted into rye fields that have been torn up.</p> <p>Planting equipment for soybeans was discussed.  Some agronomists noted that more soybeans were lost due to planting depth than due to insect pressure in 2016, and that replant was higher on fields where drill seeders were used.  More growers are opting to have a dedicated planter for soybeans, a dedicated corn planter, and a drill for wheat.</p> <p>RYE:</p> <p>Rye is being sprayed off or will be plowed under across the region.  This is being driven by low prices and a lower demand forecasted for straw.</p> <p>SPRING CEREALS:</p> <p>Spring cereal planting has begun, particularly on lighter ground.</p> <p>FORAGES:</p> <p>Some nitrogen has gone out on hay.  Alfalfa planting has begun on sandy sites. Some agronomists are advising against manure application on alfalfa as crowns are up and susceptible to damage.</p> <p>SPECIALTY / OTHER CROPS:</p> <p>Apricots and cherries are in blossom in Niagara.  Winter canola in the region looks good where it was planted late August, with September and October plantings being poor and dead, respectively. The later planted winter canola was likely planted too late to have enough vigour to last the winter.  Winter canola in other regions has been noted as having acceptable winter survival. Asparagus crown planting has begun within the last few days.  If we don’t get much rain, sweet corn planting will begin shortly.  Some potato planting has begun.</p> <p>AGRICORP:<br /> Very low to no damage reports have been submitted both within the region and provincially.  Producers are reminded of the May 1<sup>st</sup> deadline to enroll or change coverage for grain and oilseed acres, and to apply for unseeded acreage benefits.  Red clover seeding insurance should be called in immediately.</p> <p>ENVIRONMENT:</p> <p>Snow melt was not a major concern for erosion and nutrient runoff during winter due to warm temperatures and minimal accumulation.  However, the long period of exposed soil has resulted in significant wind erosion on fields with minimal cover or residue.  Frequent and severe rain events have caused rill erosion, which is particularly apparent in fields that were plowed parallel to the slope.</p> <p>Soil samples taken from soil on snow test high in organic matter, phosphorus and potassium when compared to test values from 6” cores from the surrounding field.  Producers are reminded that soil lost to erosion can be the most valuable component of the soil.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-19-2017/feed/ 0 2017-04-21 21:09 +00:00 2017-04-21 17:09 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13418 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/corn-24-d-or-not-24-d-situational-with-sikkema/ Weeds Corn – 2,4-D or not 2,4-D? Situational with Sikkema In, Dealing with Escapes &#8211; What will they cost you? , we discussed late emerging weeds and their effect on corn yield.  We also discussed some points to consider beyond the effect the weeds will have on yield and why you might consider a post application.  A post-emergence application can provide you with the opportunity to control heavy weed infestations and reduce... Tue, 18 Apr 2017 12:02:03 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/corn-24-d-or-not-24-d-situational-with-sikkema/#respond Ridgetown Campus Weed Research <div class="pf-content"><p>In, <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/02/dealing-with-escapes-what-will-they-cost-you/">Dealing with Escapes &#8211; What will they cost you?</a> , we discussed late emerging weeds and their effect on corn yield.  We also discussed some points to consider beyond the effect the weeds will have on yield and why you might consider a post application.  A post-emergence application can provide you with the opportunity to control heavy weed infestations and reduce weed seed return and an opportunity to control herbicide resistant weed escapes and perennial weed populations.  These benefits are great but do not come without some risk.  In this installment we will discuss how the improper choice of herbicide could cost you more than having some weed escapes in your corn.</p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13421" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-1.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 1" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-1.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13422" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-2.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 2" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-2.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-2-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-2-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13423" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-d-or-not-24-d-3.jpg" alt="2,4-d or not 2,4-d 3" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-d-or-not-24-d-3.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-d-or-not-24-d-3-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-d-or-not-24-d-3-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13424" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-4.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 4" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-4.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-4-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-4-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13425" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-5.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 5" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-5.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-5-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-5-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13426" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-6.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 6" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-6.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-6-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-6-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13427" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-7.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 7" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-7.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-7-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-7-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13428" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-8.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 8" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-8.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-8-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-8-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13429" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-9.jpg" alt="2,4-D or not 2,4-D 9" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-9.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-9-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/24-D-or-not-24-D-9-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p>Please stay tuned for more from <strong>“Situational with Sikkema” </strong>in the coming weeks.</p> <p>Thanks to Grain Farmers of Ontario for their support of this research and our research program.  <a href="http://www.gfo.ca/">http://www.gfo.ca/</a></p> <p>Post prepared for Peter Sikkema by Todd Cowan, CCA-ON, Huron Research Station/University of Guelph</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/corn-24-d-or-not-24-d-situational-with-sikkema/feed/ 0 2017-04-18 12:02 +00:00 2017-04-18 08:02 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13440 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/1st-2017-ridgetown-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-april-4/ Ag Business Minutes 1st 2017 Ridgetown Ag Breakfast Meeting Minutes (April 4) Breakfast Sponsor: Thanks from group to “Stephanie Divirtaris – Syngenta Seeds“ Synopsis: The quote of the week comes from Dr. Peter Sikkema – “Start Clean – Stay Clean”! The group acknowledged the passing of Morris Sagriff and Alan Spicer both regular attendees at the meetings. Their interesting contributions to the discussion will be missed. Corn acreage is expected to be... Thu, 13 Apr 2017 18:28:28 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/1st-2017-ridgetown-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-april-4/#respond Mirjam Hall <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Breakfast Sponsor: Thanks from group to “Stephanie Divirtaris – Syngenta Seeds“ </strong></p> <p><strong>Synopsis: </strong>The quote of the week comes from Dr. Peter Sikkema – “Start Clean – Stay Clean”! The group acknowledged the passing of Morris Sagriff and Alan Spicer both regular attendees at the meetings. Their interesting contributions to the discussion will be missed. Corn acreage is expected to be similar to last year or down slightly, maybe 4%. Final acreage will depend on the weather at planting. Soybean acreage is expected to be up. Weeds are larger than normal due to the mild winter.</p> <p><strong>Winter Wheat: </strong>Winter wheat acreage is down from last year, 1 million acres in 2016 compared to 900,000 acres this year. Winter wheat fields that were sprayed for weeds last fall are clean. Those that weren’t have a lot of weeds. The recent rains have left water lying in some wheat fields. Red clover is on much of the wheat. It was applied to about 50% of the acreage. Red clover can still be applied if it is not on yet.</p> <p>Stripe rust has been confirmed to have overwintered in Wisconsin; however, it has not yet been found in Ontario. Dave Hooker and Albert Tenuta looked at the plots at Ridgetown and didn’t see any. There is some powdery mildew in fields. These will likely need an early fungicide application. Most canopies are thick with high tiller counts. Nitrogen management will be important.</p> <p>Sulphur should be applied at the insurance rate of 10 lbs/ac. Historically responsive fields should receive 15 to 20 lbs/ac. Low organic matter level fields are likely to be responsive. If high nitrogen rates are being applied apply sulphur. Apply one pound of sulphur for every 10 pounds of nitrogen. Sulphur strips are a good way to determine if the field is responsive. C &amp; M Seeds have launched an electronic newsletter providing agronomy and marketing updates.</p> <p><strong>Weeds:</strong> Glyphosate resistant Canada fleabane is now in 30 counties in the province from Essex all the way to Glengarry in eastern Ontario. 23 counties have multiple resistance (group 2 &amp; 9 herbicides). Canada fleabane can be controlled with glyphosate plus saflufenacil (Eragon, Optill or Integrity) plus 3/8 lbs metribuzin. Good coverage is needed for control.</p> <p>The newest glyphosate resistant weed is waterhemp that was first discovered in 2013. It is now found in 40 different fields in Essex, Kent and Lambton. 60% of fields have resistance to groups 2, 5 and 9. Peter Sikkema’s research shows glyphosate resistant waterhemp is best controlled in soybeans with Fierce soil applied. Authority, Supreme and Boundary were the next best.</p> <p>A two pass weed control program is the best option for weed control and to maximize profitability. It also reduces selection for herbicide resistance. One pass weed control has a hidden yield loss due to late herbicide application. A herbicide delay of 24 hours caused a 3 bu/ac yield loss in corn in a competitive environment.</p> <p>Extend soybeans are available this year and companies are getting the word out about stewardship of the technology. The recommendations include the use of drift reducing tips, the use of several modes of action, awareness of temperature inversions, scouting to determine the weed spectrum and spraying dicamba early (on the first pass pre plant or early post application). TTI tips are recommended. Extend kits are available with example tips. The label states that the product must be sprayed with tips that produce coarse droplets. This formulation of dicamba will drift the same but the volatility is less than the previous formulation. It is expected that about 30% of soybean acres will be planted with Extend soybeans.</p> <p><strong>Horticultural Crops:</strong> The re-evaluation of a number of products by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) could have a significant impact on the horticulture industry especially for disease control. The PMRA was good in the past about bringing in new products but now it is much more difficult. Awareness of the issues needs to be increased. The users need to realize that these products are tools and they need to be used appropriately. Everyone should be using integrated pest management and not relying on a simple spray plan.</p> <p>The tomato acreage will be down a little this year. Sugarbeet price is $32.50 U.S.   which is down from the $50 it was a few years ago. Planting will begin once the soil is fit. The choice of fungicides for disease control is getting limited. There are a few potatoes planted near Leamington.</p> <p><strong>Edible Beans: </strong>It was reported at a dry bean meeting that variable rate fungicide application, based on NDVI, resulted in less product being used. Variable rate seeding for dry beans was opposite to other crops as populations are lower in the growth areas of a field and higher in the poor areas. Dry beans are more responsive to variable rate seeding than corn. Dry bean acreage is expected to be the same to up slightly.</p> <p><strong>Other: </strong>Seacliff Energy has digestate they are providing for free for application to farm fields. The only cost is $50/ac to cover the cost of application. The product comes from Leamington. Contact Bob Booth for more information.</p> <p><strong>Cover crops/Soil Health: </strong>A number of growers will be planting green again this year. Regardless of whether the crop is being planted into living or dead cover crop don’t forget basic production practices. Ensure good seed to soil contact, proper seeding depth, good seed trench closure and plant when it is fit to name a few. Soil erosion has been a significant problem in several fields. Minimize tillage this spring and leave at least 30% residue cover after planting. Install erosion control structures in areas of the field that are a problem year after year.</p> <p><strong>Publications</strong>: There is a new Soil Health in Ontario publication which gives a good overview of soil health. There are a number of soil health factsheets that will be available soon. A new Problem Weed Control Guide is available from your local OMAFRA office. There are also a number of new disease publications and resource materials available. Contact Albert Tenuta to obtain copies.</p> <p><strong>Next Meeting:</strong> Ridgetown Agribusiness meetings are held in the Willson Hall Campus Centre (downstairs) at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus. Meetings start at 7:15 with breakfast and every two weeks on Tuesdays.  <strong>Next meeting is April 18, 2017</strong>.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Upcoming Events</strong></p> <p>Southwest Crop Diagnostic Days (University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus) July 5 or 6, 2017</p> <p>FarmSmart Expo 2017 (University of Guelph, Elora Research Station) &#8211; July 13, 2017</p> <p>Eastern Crops Day (U. of G., Winchester Research Farm) – July 19, 2017</p> <p>Southwest Agricultural Conference – January 3 &amp; 4, 2018</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/1st-2017-ridgetown-ag-breakfast-meeting-minutes-april-4/feed/ 0 2017-04-13 18:28 +00:00 2017-04-13 14:28 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13414 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/winchester-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-11-2017/ Ag Business Minutes Winchester Ag Breakfast Meeting Notes – April 11, 2017 Alfalfa/Forages  Alfalfa is just breaking dormancy. Roots seem intact, with some new growth just starting. The consensus is that winter survival is good in eastern Ontario, other than some of the poorly drained land where there was some heaving of the crowns 2 to 3 inches out of the ground. Further west, mainly along the lake broke dormancy last week... Wed, 12 Apr 2017 17:12:02 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/winchester-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-11-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Alfalfa/Forages</strong><strong> </strong></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017.jpg"><img class="size-medium wp-image-13415 alignright" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017-300x169.jpg" alt="Alfalfa 10Apr2017" width="300" height="169" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017-768x432.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017-1024x576.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017-910x512.jpg 910w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Alfalfa-10Apr2017.jpg 1280w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a>Alfalfa is just breaking dormancy. Roots seem intact, with some new growth just starting. The consensus is that winter survival is good in eastern Ontario, other than some of the poorly drained land where there was some heaving of the crowns 2 to 3 inches out of the ground. Further west, mainly along the lake broke dormancy last week and coming ahead nicely, less advanced further north. Grass stands doing well.</p> <p>Low-lignin alfalfa; Quality Seeds reports that their variety &#8220;Boost&#8221; has about 9,000 acres to be planted in 2017. Boost was described as a non-gmo, that is shorter, leafy and branchy plant, with 7-10% less lignin than conventional varieties. Quality Seeds recommends the same harvest schedule as you would with conventional varieties, but the lower lignin gives a wider window for harvesting the 2nd and 3rd cut while keeping feed quality. These high-lignin varieties go into dormancy early.  Seed cost for Boost is $8/lb of seed, with Roundup Ready® varieties (such as HarvXtra®) are $12/lb, conventional varieties are $5-7/lb. Roundup Ready® varieties are better suited for fields that have lots of manure, high weed pressure and/or after a cereal crop that&#8217;s been harvested to control the volunteer cereal to reduce competition with the new alfalfa seedlings.</p> <p>Very little fertilizer has been spread yet.</p> <p>Priaxor ® fungicide is now registered on alfalfa for feed. Apply when it&#8217;s 6 to 8 inches tall. It may be difficult to get it applied before first cut, so will likely aim for 2nd cut. Maximum 2 applications per season. The pre harvest interval is 14 days. Registered for common leaf spot disease control and white mold suppression. Gives  better leaf retention resulting in better alfalfa quality for feed. Cost is same as corn or soybeans, at approximately $17/acre.</p> <p><strong>Winter Wheat</strong></p> <p>Some geese feeding again this spring; more snow geese around and they are worse for digging roots out (especially in alfalfa). Not late for nitrogen application yet. Some may be applied this weekend if it gets cold enough. Fields are starting to green up as fields beginning to dry up. Even in tough areas of the fields can find green tissue beginning to come through. Wheat in western Ontario is more advanced than in eastern Ontario. Agricorp reports only 1 winter wheat damage report so far and it was due to mechanical damage from ATV. Less growers are underseeding red clover in the winter wheat, but are instead waiting to seed a cover crop after harvest. This has resulted in better establishment and less problems if selling the straw.</p> <p><strong>Spring Cereals</strong><strong> </strong></p> <p>The trend to reduced acres of oats and barley continues, particularly in areas of Renfrew county which are switching to early soybeans.</p> <p><strong>Corn</strong></p> <p>Intended acres are about the still the same as last year, although the market showing slight favour of heading in corn to soybeans. Most acres won&#8217;t change from what was planned. Seed supply is better on corn than soybeans.</p> <p>More growers seeing the value to put fertilizer on both corn and bean crops this year. The high fertility fields held out better in last years drought than low testing fields</p> <p><strong>Soybeans</strong><strong> </strong></p> <p>Identify Preserved soybean acres are down but not big indication on percentages of different type of soybeans due to reduce demand in Asia this year. Limited seed supplied is available of Roundup Ready 2 Xtend® soybeans. Demand in eastern Ontario is low and the acres are planted are not expected to be sprayed with dicamba. Reports of lower percent germination in this year’s soybean seed. Growers should check seed lot germination rate and adjust seeding rate accordingly.</p> <p><strong>Cover Crops</strong><strong> </strong></p> <p>Still lots of interest in cover crops in corn and it seems to work for people. Cedarlodge farms found the only yield drag last year was where they ‘planted green’ into a 3 foot high cereal rye cover crop. Cedarlodge farms uses only cereal rye as a cover crop. Target to broadcast seed in 1st to 2nd week of September into the corn when there is less competition from the corn and they don&#8217;t have to worry about herbicide residue. They target to seed about 75-80 pounds per acre. Cereal rye seed was selling for about $400/T but lots on the market now so will be down closer to $200/T.</p> <p>Most growers have had their biggest success planting cover crops after cereal harvest. Big difference between broadcast and drilling in the cover crop. Most popular post-cereal harvest mixtures are red clover, annual rye, oats and tillage radish. Most growers do not want to spend more than $20/acre for cover crop seed.</p> <p>Some have broadcast seeded cereal rye with a fall application of potash fertilizer into standing soybeans about a week before harvest. When soybeans come off the rye is off to good start, but hard to convince guys to run over (trampling losses) soybeans before harvest. Some growers have had good success by broadcasting cereal rye after soybeans have been harvested and then ran over with vertical tillage tool. The plan is to no-till (plant green) corn into it and spray off immediately after planting. If the cereal rye is sprayed first it&#8217;s like planting into straw rather than the planter cutting through the green cereal rye plant. People who have been using cereal rye for a while are beginning to see better water infiltration, and mellow soil in the spring making it easier to plant into. Soil is dryer under the rye than under corn stalks so need to watch planting timing so it doesn&#8217;t get too dry.</p> <p>Note that GF2 now provides funding relating to cover crops.</p> <p><strong>Markets</strong><strong> </strong></p> <p>Not great on soybean side of thing as there is a great harvest in South America. Our basis not as high because of higher dollar, but we still have stronger commodity prices as compared to the US grower. Corn prices still good. Planting progress will have an influence as we move further into the planting season. Conventional corn acres small but are predicted to steadily grow over the next few years, depending on consumer demand.</p> <p><strong>Neonic Seed Treatment</strong></p> <p>Reminder that growers will need to have an inspection each year to buy seed (can&#8217;t do an inspection in April 2017 and buy your seed for 2018 in March 2018 on the same inspection).</p> <p><strong>Other</strong></p> <p>Mike Cowbrough has produced a new book, Problem Weed Guide, which contains management strategies for 19 weed species in corn, soybean and cereal crops; <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/problem-weed-guide/">it can be found here.</a> Limited copies are available at the Kemptville OMAFRA office.</p> <p><em>Save the Date!</em></p> <p><strong>Southwestern Ontario Crop Diagnostic Day</strong> – July 5 and 6, 2017 at the University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus</p> <p><strong>FarmSmart Expo, </strong>Thursday, July 13, 2017 at the Elora Research Station!</p> <p><strong>Eastern Ontario Crop Diagnostic Day</strong> &#8211; Wednesday, July 19<sup>th</sup>, 2017 at the Winchester Research Station</p> <p><em>Thank you to Stephanie Nanne, P.T. Sullivan Agro and Jessica Singh for taking notes for this morning’s meeting. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/winchester-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-11-2017/feed/ 0 2017-04-12 17:12 +00:00 2017-04-12 13:12 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13409 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/exeter-ag-breakfast-meeting-april-11-2017/ Ag Business Minutes Exeter Ag Breakfast Meeting (April 11, 2017) Thank you to David Townsend who chaired the first breakfast meeting and to BASF that sponsored breakfast. The next meeting will be on April 25th starting at 7:00 am for breakfast (meeting starts at 7:30) at the Malibu restaurant near Exeter.  Martin Harry will be the chairman.  The meetings will finish no later than 9:00 am. Synopsis: Only a small... Wed, 12 Apr 2017 15:47:03 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/exeter-ag-breakfast-meeting-april-11-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><h5>Thank you to David Townsend who chaired the first breakfast meeting and to BASF that sponsored breakfast. The next meeting will be on April 25<sup>th</sup> starting at 7:00 am for breakfast (meeting starts at 7:30) at the Malibu restaurant near Exeter.  Martin Harry will be the chairman.  The meetings will finish no later than 9:00 am.</h5> <p><strong>Synopsis</strong>: Only a small percentage of the wheat has received nitrogen. Ohio is considerably ahead of Ontario in terms of spring weather but New York is about the same as Ontario. The snow has just melted in parts of Eastern Ontario. Overall, it’s been a good spring for soil sampling although it’s too wet now. The wheat looks good in this area and plant stands are thick. There is some frost heaving so good weather over the next few weeks will be important. There is powdery mildew present further south. Red clover that was seeded this spring has already germinated. Alfalfa may get seeded this weekend if conditions dry up. Corn acreage will be the same as last year or lower depending on the region (5%). Weather will play an important role in how much corn actually gets planted. Soybean acreage will be up. IP acres are likely lower in some areas but glyphosate tolerant acres are up. The core IP growing areas are expected to plant about the same acreage as usual. The adoption of RR2 Xtend varieties increases as you go further south. Uptake is much less in northern counties but as much as 30% of soybean fields may be seeded with RR2 Xtend in parts of southwestern Ontario. Many of those acres may not actually get dicamba applied. Some growers are planting RR2 Extend soybeans so they can use dicamba as a backup. In many cases growers may just be testing out the genetics of these new varieties for yield potential. Edible bean acres are expected to be the same as last year. Forages look good to date.</p> <p><strong>Wheat</strong>: Although the winter wheat crop looks excellent there are large differences based on seeding date. The percentage of winter wheat acres that are underseeded with red clover varies depending on the region. It ranges from as little as 5% to as much as 40%. This has not changed much over the years.  It appears that the interest in broadcasting red clover has not grown due to increased post-harvest seeding of cover crops. The acres seeded with a cover crop after wheat harvest have increased considerably over the last few years. Strip rust is on everyones mind after last year. Strip rust has overwintered for the first time in Wisconsin. Things are dry in the southern US so that may slow the progress of the disease. There are large differences in variety susceptibility so growers need to watch susceptible varieties closely. Many growers are planning on a 2 pass fungicide program to keep strip rust in check. The timing will depend on when the disease moves in. Fields need to be sprayed immediately once rust is discovered. Interest in split applied nitrogen is high but since little has been put on to date weather and workload will dictate how much split application actually takes place. There is some septoria already present in a few fields.</p> <p><strong>Soybeans</strong>: There has been considerable effort this winter to educate the industry on spraying dicamba on RR2 Xtend soybeans. There is still concern that not all growers are aware they must use nozzles that produce extremely coarse or ultra-coarse droplets for this technology. Purchase these nozzles early to make sure they are available when needed. It should be stressed that spraying near vegetable crops or susceptible areas is not worth the risk. There are other products that can be used pre-emergent to control fleabane.</p> <p><strong>Agricorp: </strong>Very few damage claims have been reported to date. A number of new species have been added to the Standard New Forage Seeding Plan (SNFS Plan). These additions are meant to include “cover crops”. Below is the updated species list for the SNFS Plan. It’s an establishment based program only. If a crop is destined for a harvestable forage crop the following year it would be insured under the Premium New Forage Seeding. The window for establishment for SNFS can be either spring seeded (Enrol by May 1st deadline, report spring seeded SNFS by June 30) or summer seeded (Enrol by Aug 1, report summer seeded SNFS by Sept 1).</p> <p>For 2017, Agricorp has clarified the species insurable under the SNFS plan to support the increased adoption of a broader set of brassicas, cereals, grasses and legumes grown in Ontario. The species covered under the plan include:</p> <ul> <li>Alfalfa (not u/s into winter wheat)</li> <li>Annual rye grass</li> <li>Birds foot trefoil</li> <li>Blue grass</li> <li>Brome grass</li> <li>Creeping red fescue</li> <li>Meadow foxtail</li> <li>Orchard grass</li> <li>Perennial rye grass</li> <li>Red clover</li> <li>Red canary grass</li> <li>Sweet clover</li> <li>Tall fescue</li> <li>Timothy</li> <li>White clover</li> <li><em>Buckwheat*</em></li> <li><em>Daikon radish*</em></li> <li><em>Millet*</em></li> <li><em>Oats*</em></li> <li><em>Oilseed radish*</em></li> <li><em>Peas*</em></li> <li><em>Soybeans*</em></li> <li><em>Triticale*</em></li> <li><em>Vetch*</em></li> <li><em>Sorghum*</em></li> </ul> <p><em>(* denotes new in 2017)</em></p> <p>The 2017 premium rate for Standard New Forage Seeding is $4.55 per acre. The establishment benefit is $54 per acre. All other plan details can be found on <a href="http://www.agricorp.com/en-ca/Programs/ProductionInsurance/NewForageSeeding/Pages/Overview.aspx">Agricorp.com</a>.</p> <p>April 1: Last day to cancel coverage</p> <p>May 1: New applications and coverage changes</p> <p>June 15: Last day to report unseeded acreage.</p> <p>June 30: Spring seeded final acreage reports due.</p> <p>July 10: Premiums</p> <p>Report Damage as soon as it occurs<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Upcoming Event</strong></p> <p>Southwest Crop Diagnostic Days &#8211; July 5 and 6, 2017</p> <p>FarmSmart Expo &#8211; July 13</p> <p>Eastern Crops Day &#8211; July 19</p> <p><strong><u>Stratford Crop Technology Contacts</u>:</strong></p> <p>Horst Bohner, <a href="mailto:horst.bohner@ontario.ca">horst.bohner@ontario.ca</a></p> <p>Joanna Follings, <a href="mailto:joanna.follings@ontario.ca">joanna.follings@ontario.ca</a></p> <p>Meghan Moran, <a href="mailto:meghan.moran@ontario.ca">meghan.moran@ontario.ca</a></p> <p>Jake Munroe, <a href="mailto:jake.munrow@ontario.ca">jake.munrow@ontario.ca</a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/exeter-ag-breakfast-meeting-april-11-2017/feed/ 0 2017-04-12 15:47 +00:00 2017-04-12 11:47 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13397 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/the-race-against-anthracnose/ Edible Beans anthracnose The Race Against Anthracnose Co-authored with Chris Gillard, University of Guelph- Ridgetown Campus The 2016 season was relatively dry, and one thing edible bean growers did not have to contend with was anthracnose. In Ontario we have not seen a significant infestation of anthracnose since 2010. Can we continue to keep anthracnose at bay into the future?  History of Anthracnose in Ontario Ontario growers... Mon, 10 Apr 2017 13:38:28 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/the-race-against-anthracnose/#respond Meghan Moran <div class="pf-content"><p style="text-align: right"><em>Co-authored with Chris Gillard, University of Guelph- Ridgetown Campus</em></p> <p>The 2016 season was relatively dry, and one thing edible bean growers did not have to contend with was anthracnose. In Ontario we have not seen a significant infestation of anthracnose since 2010. Can we continue to keep anthracnose at bay into the future?</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>History of Anthracnose in Ontario</strong></p> <p>Ontario growers experienced their first major infestation in 1977. Bean seed harvested that year was significantly impacted and strict seed inspection protocols were put in place on seed fields in the years to follow. At that time Race 23 was the predominant isolate.</p> <p>Bean industry professionals often quote an 8-10 year time frame between significant infection issues in Ontario, which occur when the predominant race of anthracnose changes. Some current edible bean varieties carry resistance to just one specific race of anthracnose while others are resistant to multiple races. Plant breeders are working to pyramid resistance and develop new varieties that provide protection against several of the races encountered in North America. However, if a new race moves in the resistant edible bean varieties used against past races will not be effective. <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-12.jpg"><img class="size-medium wp-image-13400 alignright" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-12-300x225.jpg" alt="anthracnose lesions on bean pod" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-12-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-12-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-12-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a></p> <p>In 2004 farmers began the battle with Race 73. Surveys conducted in 2005-2007 indicated that over 95% of the anthracnose isolates were Race 73, although at least 5 other races were found in Ontario. In 2010 there was another significant outbreak, and in 2014 Ontario farmers were also finding anthracnose in their fields. In both years it was still predominantly Race 73. There is some concern that we are getting beyond that 8-10 year time frame and an outbreak of a new race is just around the corner.</p> <p>Along the timeline of anthracnose development in Ontario, we can also mark changes in cultural and chemical control practices. Pyraclostrobin (Headline, BASF) was registered in edible beans in Ontario in 2002, and azoxystrobin (Quadris, Syngenta) in 2005. Strobilurin fungicides effectively prevent disease development by interrupting spore germination. Other important chemical and cultural control measures came in 2006. Azoxystrobin (Dynasty, Syngenta) seed treatments were added to fludioxanil + metalaxyl-M (Apron Maxx, Syngenta) to significantly increase disease control, and the industry moved to 2 years of seed production in Idaho with 1 year in Ontario. And finally, since 2010 all Ontario pedigreed seeds fields are being treated twice with strobilurin fungicides in an effort to prevent disease development and transmission.</p> <p>There are over 40 varieties of edible beans registered in Canada with resistance to Race 73. A majority of kidney bean varieties carry resistance. Two recently registered navy varieties (Bolt, Fatham) and one recent black bean variety (Zenith) carry anthracnose resistance. That said, most navy and black bean varieties are susceptible to Race 73 and are therefore at risk of developing the disease.</p> <p><strong>Disease Symptoms, Transmission and Management<a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-2-CROP.jpg"><img class="size-medium wp-image-13405 alignright" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-2-CROP-300x198.jpg" alt="2017 Aug - anthracnose nursery Elora (2) CROP" width="300" height="198" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-2-CROP-300x198.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-2-CROP-768x508.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-2-CROP-1024x677.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a></strong></p> <p>Anthracnose infection appears as brown to black lesions on petioles (leaf stems) and along leaf veins on the underside of leaves. Pods will develop sunken, circular lesions that are light to dark brown, with a well-defined black ring often surrounded by a red-brown halo. The center of the lesions on pods may have a white to pink gelatinous mass of spores, which turns to grey or black granules as it dries. Seeds can be significantly discoloured or shriveled. If infection occurs late in the season, seeds may carry anthracnose without any visible symptoms on the seed. Yield losses may be up to 100%, and visual quality of seed in infected fields may render the crop unmarketable.</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-5-CROP.jpg"><img class="size-medium wp-image-13404 alignleft" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-5-CROP-300x209.jpg" alt="2017 Aug - anthracnose nursery Elora (5) CROP" width="300" height="209" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-5-CROP-300x209.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-5-CROP-768x534.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2017-Aug-anthracnose-nursery-Elora-5-CROP-1024x712.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a> Transmission of the disease is usually from infected seed. Efforts to produce seed in arid regions such as Idaho have significantly reduced issues with anthracnose in Ontario. Anthracnose can overwinter in fields on edible bean residue. Work by Chris Gillard, University of Guelph – Ridgetown Campus and Bob Conner, AAFC in Morden MB, has shown the disease can survive for up to 20 months on crop residue on the soil surface, and up to 6 months on buried crop residue, so crop rotation and tillage are important in management. Anthracnose can be dispersed through the field by wind-driven rains, on clothing or footwear of people walking through fields, and to a lesser extent on metal farm machinery. Cool to moderate temperatures (12 to 27° C) and frequent rains promote disease development.</p> <p>Studies led by Chris Gillard in 2014 show that strobilurin fungicides are most effective at controlling anthracnose compared to other active ingredients, and there was little difference between the various strobilurin products. Studies on different application timings in 2005-2006 showed that for a single fungicide application the best timings are at 1<sup>st</sup> flower (one open flower per plant) to full flower where infection levels are moderate to high. If infection levels are low an application at full flower is effective. The greatest return on investment (ROI) was achieved with an application at 1<sup>st</sup> flower; this timing was associated with the lowest level of dockage and pick as well as good yield.</p> <p>Two sequential applications consistently resulted in better yields and seed weights than a single application. The ROI was $34 to $91/ac higher for sequential fungicide applications than for single applications at 3 of 4 field sites. Sequential applications at 5<sup>th</sup> trifoliate + full bloom had the highest yield in a low anthracnose year, and in a year with high disease pressure the 1<sup>st</sup> flower + full bloom timing was best.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>References:</p> <p>Gillard, C. (2016). A summary of 15 years of research on the cultural and chemical control of anthracnose in dry bean [Powerpoint presentation]. Canadian Pulse Research Workshop.</p> <p>Barker, B. (2011, March). <a href="http://www.topcropmanager.com/diseases/integrating-management-practices-for-anthracnose-control-10478">Integrating management practices for anthracnose control</a>. <em>Top Crop Manager. </em></p> <p><em>  </em>Markell, S., Wunsch, M. &amp; del Rio, L. (2012). <a href="https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/pp1233.pdf">Anthracnose of Dry Beans</a>. North Dakota State University</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/the-race-against-anthracnose/feed/ 0 2017-04-10 13:38 +00:00 2017-04-10 09:38 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13391 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-5-2017/ Ag Business Minutes breakfast meeting dicamba Stripe Rust Xtend Simcoe Ag Breakfast Meeting Notes – April 5, 2017 SUMMARY A small group was in attendance, and much of the discussion was focused on wheat and dicamba-tolerant soybeans. Conditions have been wet in recent days with more rain to come, so the hope is that not too much nitrogen has been applied to wheat before the rain because it may have been lost. Producers are encouraged to be careful... Fri, 07 Apr 2017 18:00:44 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-5-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>SUMMARY</p> <p>A small group was in attendance, and much of the discussion was focused on wheat and dicamba-tolerant soybeans. Conditions have been wet in recent days with more rain to come, so the hope is that not too much nitrogen has been applied to wheat before the rain because it may have been lost. Producers are encouraged to be careful not to cause compaction and include this as a key point in deciding when to get out on fields.</p> <p>WINTER WHEAT</p> <p>Although early planted wheat had looked tough in past weeks, it is all starting to green up. Some are surprised at how good the wheat looks considering there have been many ups and downs in terms of temperature over the winter months. The small group did not report any signs of heaving in winter wheat fields.</p> <p>Many have spread clover seed, and some nitrogen has also been applied in the region. That nitrogen may have been lost, particularly on sandy soils, because of recent rain. On the up side, what has been applied was done on dry soils so there seems to be minimal tracking in fields.</p> <p>Producers and agronomists are encouraged to be out scouting winter wheat early for diseases. Powdery mildew has been found in some fields and should be monitored. Watch that it does not progress throughout the canopy, and protect the flag leaf or one leaf before flag leaf from powdery mildew.</p> <p>Stripe rust is already present in fields in the southern United State and spores have been found in Wisconsin. Movement into Ontario is dependent on the weather. Get out and scout. Once stripe rust is detected, do not delay applying a fungicide. It will progress very quickly; there is only about 10 days between stripe rust infection and reproduction. Stripe rust caused yield losses in 2016, with reports ranging from 20 to 40 bushels lost where it was left untreated.</p> <p>See below for a decision tree on fungicide applications in winter wheat, and <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Fungicide-Efficacy-Table-for-Control-of-Wheat-Diseases-NCERA-184.pdf">Click Here</a> for a list of fungicides registered for the various diseases. Consider using different modes of action for stripe rust than you would use for fusarium to mitigate risk of resistance. If you do spray for stripe rust this does not provide control of fusarium later in the season. You can also review this article <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2016/05/wheat-fungicide-decision-tree-for-fusarium-head-blight-and-stripe-rust/">(Click Here)</a> on stripe rust and fusarium head blight. When scouting take note of the crop growth stage as well as the amount of disease, and know what wheat variety you are growing and the resistance traits it carries (some exhibit resistance to stripe rust, some are highly susceptible).</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/fungicide-decision-tree.jpg"><img class="aligncenter wp-image-13392" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/fungicide-decision-tree-1024x729.jpg" alt="Fu" width="900" height="641" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/fungicide-decision-tree-1024x729.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/fungicide-decision-tree-300x214.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/fungicide-decision-tree-768x547.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/fungicide-decision-tree.jpg 1232w" sizes="(max-width: 900px) 100vw, 900px" /></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>AGRICORP</p> <p>Agricorp have not had any damage reports on winter wheat in the region to date. As a reminder, May 1<sup>st</sup> is the deadline to enroll or change coverage for grain and oilseed acres, and to apply for unseeded acreage benefits.</p> <p>Agricorp have added more cover crop species to the Standard New Forage Seeding Plan, which include buckwheat, Daikon radish, millet, oats, oilseed radish, peas, soybeans, triticale, vetch and sorghum.</p> <p>SOILS</p> <p>Winter has been fairly open, and a great deal of rill and gulley erosion is visible in farm fields. Erosion and loss of soils has a direct impact on farm productivity.</p> <p>Use of cover crops continues to be encouraged to keep soil in place. Cover cropping is likely tougher on extremely heavy soils. In those soils the cover is best controlled in the fall or else there can be too much moisture in the spring, making it difficult to get on fields in the spring. However, it was noted that creative solutions are required to move forward in managing soils, for example putting grass strips through large fields to slow water movement across the field.</p> <p>Producers should also be focused on managing compaction and understand the associated economics. Scott Shearer, Ohio State University, gave a presentation in Ontario on compaction and has data that indicates there can be a 10-35 bu/ac difference in corn yields because of tracking, and up to 60% yield loss in very poor conditions. When up to 50% of the field may be tracked (as with some spring manure application operations), the losses are very significant and warrant consideration.</p> <p>WEED CONTROL AND DICAMBA TOLERANT SOYBEANS</p> <p>There were some brief conversations on weed control in general. Producers are reminded to get a burn down herbicide application done in a timely fashion. Bluegrass is a problem weed in the region and it was noted that pyroxasulfone (Group 15) is now available and has good activity on bluegrass, as well as waterhemp. Mike Cowbrough has produced a new book, Problem Weed Guide, which contains management strategies for 19 weed species in corn, soybean and cereal crops; <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/problem-weed-guide/">it can be found here.</a></p> <p>Stewardship of dicamba tolerant soybeans was discussed, and producers using this technology and spraying new formulations of dicamba are strongly encouraged to be informed and understand all details of the label to avoid issues with drift. Producers are encouraged to stick to early applications up to the first trifoliate. Do not spray in dead calm/zero wind or under conditions in which there may be a temperature inversion. Do not add AMS to the spray tank. Using air induction nozzles would be an off-label application of the product. Make sure you have the right nozzles (consider ordering a few extra) and overlap pattern and consider ordering a few extra.</p> <p>In addition to following label instructions, consult these resources:</p> <p><a href="https://www.country-guide.ca/2017/02/24/pest-patrol-xtend-soybeans-spray-drift-and-controlling-glyphosate-resistant-fleabane/50493/">https://www.country-guide.ca/2017/02/24/pest-patrol-xtend-soybeans-spray-drift-and-controlling-glyphosate-resistant-fleabane/50493/</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.sprayers101.com">www.sprayers101.com</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.Engeniatankmix.com">www.Engeniatankmix.com</a> (US trade names and units)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Feature image courtesy of Ali Navabi, University of Guelph. </em></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/simcoe-ag-breakfast-meeting-notes-april-5-2017/feed/ 0 2017-04-07 18:00 +00:00 2017-04-07 14:00 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13384 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/consultation-for-the-plant-and-animal-health-strategy-for-canada-ends-april-30th/ Baute Bug Blog Diseases Weeds national plant health strategy PAHS plant health Consultation for the Plant and Animal Health Strategy for Canada – Ends April 30th Learn, participate and have your say The proposed Plant and Animal Health Strategy for Canada was drafted together by governments, industry and others who play a role in safeguarding plant and animal health. The strategy will protect plants and animals from new and emerging risks by focusing efforts more on prevention and increasing partner collaboration and coordination. You are invited... Wed, 05 Apr 2017 14:13:10 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/consultation-for-the-plant-and-animal-health-strategy-for-canada-ends-april-30th/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Learn, participate and have your say</strong></p> <p>The proposed Plant and Animal Health Strategy for Canada was drafted together by governments, industry and others who play a role in safeguarding plant and animal health.</p> <p>The strategy will protect plants and animals from new and emerging risks by focusing efforts more on prevention and increasing partner collaboration and coordination.</p> <p>You are invited to join the conversation this month and contribute your ideas on the draft strategy.</p> <p><a href="http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/consultations-and-engagement/pahs/draft-for-consultation-purposes/eng/1490390513931/1490390586446?chap=0" target="_blank">Read the draft strategy</a> and provide your feedback through one of the following options:</p> <ul> <li>complete an <a href="http://inspection.sondages-surveys.ca/s/PAHS-thoughts-avis-SSVA/?l=en" target="_blank">online questionnaire</a>,</li> <li>attend a <a href="http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/consultations-and-engagement/pahs/consultation/webinar/eng/1490922540392/1490922749969" target="_blank">webinar</a>,</li> <li><a href="http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/consultations-and-engagement/pahs/consultation/discussion/eng/1490923472171/1490923611903" target="_blank">lead a discussion</a> within your organization or community, and</li> <li>sign up to <a href="http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/consultations-and-engagement/pahs/consultation/stay-connected/eng/1490924127013/1490924192120" target="_blank">stay connected</a>.</li> </ul> <p>To be successful, the strategy must be shaped by and reflect views of all partner groups. This consultation provides the opportunity for all stakeholders to have a say in the final contents of the strategy.</p> <p>Please provide your comments by <strong><u>April 30, 2017</u></strong>.</p> <p><strong><a href="http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/contact-us/eng/1299860523723/1299860643049?PAHS-SSVA" target="_blank">Contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency</a> with questions about the Plant and Animal Health Strategy for Canada.</strong></p> <p><strong>Additional information</strong></p> <p><a href="http://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/consultations-and-engagement/pahs/questions-and-answers/eng/1480555051754/1480555093544" target="_blank">Questions and Answers: A Plant and Animal Health Strategy for Canada</a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/consultation-for-the-plant-and-animal-health-strategy-for-canada-ends-april-30th/feed/ 0 2017-04-05 14:13 +00:00 2017-04-05 10:13 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13310 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/should-i-use-the-same-old-seeding-rate/ Canola canola seeding seeding rate Should I use the same old seeding rate? It’s getting close to spring again and, of course, this article is all about calculating seeding rates and achieving a targeted plant density. Let’s cut to the chase. Other than situations where a pneumatic row planter is being used, why should farmers worry about seeding rates outside of the standard 5 lb per acre? It’s true that with median seed... Wed, 05 Apr 2017 12:00:57 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/should-i-use-the-same-old-seeding-rate/#respond Meghan Moran <div class="pf-content"><p>It’s getting close to spring again and, of course, this article is all about calculating seeding rates and achieving a targeted plant density. Let’s cut to the chase. Other than situations where a pneumatic row planter is being used, why should farmers worry about seeding rates outside of the standard 5 lb per acre?</p> <p>It’s true that with median seed sizes, average planting conditions and typical seed survival rates, 5 lb/ac should result in good stands and yields. But you might want to run through the calculations to be sure you are starting the season off right. There are some points to consider, the first of which is that thousand seed weight (TSW) can range from 3 to 6 grams per thousand. This can have a big impact on the number of seeds planted per square foot at a static 5 lb/ac seeding rate. Also, drills should be re-calibrated when switching between seed sizes. Another consideration is that with canola, 1 seed through the drill does not equal 1 plant. In Ontario we expect to get 75% emergence in typical conditions, and often get less. In Western Canada, they typically see 50-60% of seeds emerge.</p> <p>Calculate what the plant stand will look like with your seed size and seeding rate, along with a 75% and 60% emergence rate. With a TSW of 4.5 g and a 5 lb/ac seeding rate the drill will put down 11.5 seeds/ft<sup>2</sup> ([5 lb/ac x 10.4 conversion factor] ÷ 4.5 g = 11.5). If 75% of those seeds emerge you will have around 8.5 plants/ft<sup>2</sup>, but 60% emergence leaves you with just under 7 plants/ft<sup>2</sup>. As seed size goes up or seeding rate goes down, there will be fewer plants contributing to yield potential. Emergence may be poor with higher levels of residue, cold soils, or inconsistent planting depth.</p> <p>The Canola Council of Canada (CCC) states that an ideal stand is 7-10 plants/ft<sup>2</sup> and stands below 5 plants/ ft<sup>2</sup> will have a lower yield potential. Seeding rates need to account for low emergence rates as well as buffering plant losses to insects or other in-season stressors. Marieke Patton, Bayer Territory Sales Manager in Central and Northern Ontario, shared that Bayer’s team of agronomists have been involved in a Target Plant Population project in which InVigor hybrids were evaluated at 42 locations over 3 years. Bayer found that targeting populations of 5-7 plants/ ft<sup>2 </sup>ensures yield potential is met, but Patton also noted that this means using seeding rates that deliver 10-11 seeds / ft<sup>2</sup>. Patton advises growers to “calculate the seeds per square foot required to meet yield potential, and calibrate your equipment properly to allow you to reach your target seeding rate and population.”</p> <p>None of this is new, it’s just a reminder. What <em>is</em> new, is a tool from CCC to make this process a bit easier. Take a minute to run your seeding rate plans through the Seeding Rate Calculator at <a href="http://www.canolacalculator.ca">www.canolacalculator.ca</a> . You can also use the Plant Survival tool to easily determine what your emergence was for future reference. Around the POST herbicide application timing or after harvest, conduct a plant density count and plug the values in along with your seed size and seeding rate to determine what the emergence rate was. Knowing the emergence rate will help you with seeding decisions in the future, and understanding the conditions that lead to problematic emergence rates. Combined with the drill calibration resources from CCC <a href="http://www.canolacouncil.org/canola-encyclopedia/crop-establishment/equipment-management/">(Click Here)</a>, Ontario canola growers can make short work of delivering the right seeding rate in 2017.</p> <p>Examples, <a href="http://www.canolacalculator.ca">www.canolacalculator.ca</a>:</p> <h1 style="text-align: center"><strong>Seeding Rate</strong></h1> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-1.jpg"><img class="wp-image-13316 aligncenter" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-1.jpg" alt="Canola Council Calculator - Seeding Rate 1" width="550" height="836" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-1.jpg 593w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-1-197x300.jpg 197w" sizes="(max-width: 550px) 100vw, 550px" /></a><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-2.jpg"><img class="aligncenter wp-image-13315" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-2.jpg" alt="seed rate 2" width="520" height="705" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-2.jpg 624w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/seed-rate-2-221x300.jpg 221w" sizes="(max-width: 520px) 100vw, 520px" /></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h1 style="text-align: center"></h1> <h1 style="text-align: center"><strong>Plant Survival</strong></h1> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-1.jpg"><img class="wp-image-13318 size-full aligncenter" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-1.jpg" alt="Canola Council Calculator survival rate 1" width="532" height="931" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-1.jpg 532w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-1-171x300.jpg 171w" sizes="(max-width: 532px) 100vw, 532px" /></a></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-2.jpg"><img class="wp-image-13317 size-full aligncenter" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-2.jpg" alt="Canola Council Calculator survival rate 2" width="557" height="881" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-2.jpg 557w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/survival-rate-2-190x300.jpg 190w" sizes="(max-width: 557px) 100vw, 557px" /></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Thank you to <a href="http://www.canolacouncil.org/">Canola Council of Canada</a> for information on seeding rates, drill calibration and the <a href="http://www.canolacalculator.ca">Canola Calculator</a>.</em></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/should-i-use-the-same-old-seeding-rate/feed/ 0 2017-04-05 12:00 +00:00 2017-04-05 08:00 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13372 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/2017-bt-corn-traits-table-for-products-currently-available-in-canada-english-and-french/ Baute Bug Blog Corn Bt traits table for Canada 2017 2017 Bt Corn Traits Table for Products Currently Available in Canada – English and French Many of you have been asking for the 2017 Bt Traits tables for Canada so here they are. Bt Corn Products/Traits Currently Available in Canada – As of April 2017 Technologies de maïs Bt présentement disponibles au Canada –avril 2017 Of note is the removal of western bean cutworm from products within the table containing only the Cry1F trait as... Mon, 03 Apr 2017 18:54:47 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/2017-bt-corn-traits-table-for-products-currently-available-in-canada-english-and-french/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p>Many of you have been asking for the 2017 Bt Traits tables for Canada so here they are.</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Registered-Bt-events-April-2017-ENGLISH-Final.pdf">Bt Corn Products/Traits Currently Available in Canada – As of April 2017</a></p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Technologies-de-maïs-Bt-présentement-disponibles-au-Canada-–avril-2017.pdf">Technologies de maïs Bt présentement disponibles au Canada –avril 2017</a></p> <p>Of note is the removal of western bean cutworm from products within the table containing only the Cry1F trait as this trait no longer provides adequate protection against WBC.  Only hybrids containing Vip3A provide protection against WBC now.  If you are planting a corn hybrid this year that does not contain Vip3A, expect to scout for WBC egg masses this summer and spray if thresholds are reached.</p> <p>More information on WBC monitoring, scouting and management to come soon. The CCPC website is currently down for maintenance/refresh.  We hope to have both the CCPC website and the WBC Trap Network up in early May.  In the meantime, any relevant information on WBC and the trap network will be provided here at FieldCropNews. So stay tuned!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/04/2017-bt-corn-traits-table-for-products-currently-available-in-canada-english-and-french/feed/ 0 2017-04-03 18:54 +00:00 2017-04-03 14:54 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13324 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/understanding-clubroot-life-cycle-resistant-varieties-and-management/ Canola clubroot sanitation Understanding Clubroot – Life Cycle, Resistant Varieties and Management In 2016 clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) was detected in fields across Ontario. The results of a preliminary survey for clubroot of canola in Ontario was posted previously on Field Crop News; to review it Click Here. This article provides  more information on the disease and how to manage it. You can learn a great deal more about clubroot and the experiences of... Thu, 30 Mar 2017 14:51:07 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/understanding-clubroot-life-cycle-resistant-varieties-and-management/#respond Meghan Moran <div class="pf-content"><p>In 2016 clubroot (<em>Plasmodiophora brassicae)</em> was detected in fields across Ontario. The results of a preliminary survey for clubroot of canola in Ontario was posted previously on Field Crop News; to review it <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/01/clubroot-in-ontario-canola/">Click </a><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/01/clubroot-in-ontario-canola/">Here</a>. This article provides  more information on the disease and how to manage it. You can learn a great deal more about clubroot and the experiences of Western Canada with the disease at <a href="http://www.clubroot.ca">www.clubroot.ca</a>, developed by Canola Council of Canada (CCC).</p> <div id="attachment_13364" style="width: 235px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-galls-young-Credit-www.canolawatch.org_.jpg"><img class="wp-image-13364" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-galls-young-Credit-www.canolawatch.org_-150x150.jpg" alt="young canola root with slight gall formation, the beginning of clubroot symptoms" width="225" height="176" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-galls-young-Credit-www.canolawatch.org_-300x235.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-galls-young-Credit-www.canolawatch.org_.jpg 400w" sizes="(max-width: 225px) 100vw, 225px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Early stages of clubroot infection. www.CanolaWatch.org</p></div> <p>Clubroot is a disease that should be taken seriously and managed carefully, but should not prevent Ontario farmers from successfully growing canola. Now that we know the disease is here, the #1 task for all Ontario canola growers is this: look at canola roots in symptomatic areas of each field. Above ground symptoms are similar to other diseases or nutrient deficiencies and include yellowing, wilting, stunting, premature ripening and plant death. It will appear in patches, and often near the field entrance or in wet areas. Each year, in each canola field, pull up plants to check for galled roots in areas with these symptoms through the summer or as the crop begins to ripen. Some areas of your fields may always look poor because of soil conditions or other factors; check them for clubroot anyway. Clubs can also be found after harvest.</p> <p><strong>Life Cycle and Conditions for Infection</strong></p> <p>Clubroot is a very persistent and unusual soil-borne organism that requires Brassica plants for reproduction. Resting spores exist in upper soil layers for up to 20 years. They are stimulated to germinate and become zoospores when canola (or other Brassica species) roots release nutrients. The zoospores have flagella (whip-like tails) that allow them to swim towards roots. They move into root hairs, and a few days later secondary zoospores are released to the soil. These secondary zoospores can then infect the entire root surface, not just root hairs, and cause the symptoms that lead to yield loss.</p> <p>As disease spreads through the root tissue a hormonal response causes excessive root growth, producing the clubbed or galled root symptoms that clearly identify the disease.  Clubbed roots cannot take up nutrients or water properly, which leads to aboveground symptoms and potentially plant death. As the roots decay, new resting spores are released to the soil.</p> <p>The initial zoospore is able to easily swim towards roots when conditions are wet. If soils are dry the short-lived zoospore may not reach the roots, so in dry years there generally less clubroot infection. Soil pH below 6.5 can also slow spore germination and infection, but does not prevent disease development. If infection occurs early in the season, greater numbers of secondary zoospores are produced leading to greater yield losses. Light levels of infection may not cause yield loss but billions of resting spores can still be released from a single infected root.</p> <iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/3dyQhsqIu0o" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Resistant Varieties</strong></p> <p>The root hairs of both resistant and susceptible canola varieties are infected by the initial zoospore released from resting spores in the soil. However, secondary zoospores are not able to infect the roots of resistant varieties so the symptoms and yield loss do not occur.</p> <p>There are different pathotypes of clubroot in Canadian soils, which are essentially different strains of the disease. A clubroot resistant canola variety will only protect against a specific pathotype. Clubroot-positive fields in Brassica vegetable production (cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage etc.) in Ontario were confirmed as having pathotype 6 in surveys from the 1970’s. In Alberta it has historically been pathotype 3 that caused economic damage in canola. Unfortunately at this time we do not know what pathotype has infected the canola in Ontario, but the lengthy analysis process is currently underway.</p> <p>Resistant varieties can lose their utility over time, and this has been the recent experience of canola growers in Alberta. Growing a variety that is resistant to one pathotype creates a selection pressure that allows proliferation of other pathotypes. For example, where varieties resistant to pathotype 3 have been used in clubroot-positive fields in Alberta, the canola is now being infected by pathotype 5x. If a field has moderate to high levels of clubroot spores, it is highly possible more than one pathotype is present.</p> <p>Use of resistant varieties is encouraged in Ontario at this time on fields where clubroot has been detected and for growers that are at risk by being near infected fields or sharing field equipment. They are particularly useful where spore counts are relatively low and long (4 year) rotations are in place, but may struggle to yield where spore counts are very high. Seed for clubroot resistant varieties is typically the same price as non-resistant varieties, so purchasing seed is not cost prohibitive. In Ontario, most seed companies are offering one or two clubroot resistant varieties. A complete list of resistant varieties in Canada is available <a href="http://www.canolacouncil.org/canola-encyclopedia/diseases/clubroot/control-clubroot/">(Click Here)</a> but does not indicate which varieties are available in Ontario.</p> <p><strong>Long Rotations Key to Management</strong></p> <p>Unfortunately, there are no pesticides available to control clubroot and it cannot be eradicated from a field. The key is to keep spore counts low, and long rotations (4 years or more) are the best way to achieve that. The half-life for clubroot resting spores is just under 4 years, so keeping Brassicas out of the rotation for 4 to 5 years prevents build-up.  In Alberta, depending which county you farm in a mandatory 4 year rotation may be imposed on fields where clubroot is detected. Renn Breitkreuz farms in Onoway, northwest of Edmonton, and was a guest at the Annual General Meeting of the Ontario Canola Growers Association in January. Based on his experiences and discussion with other farmers, Renn believes clubroot resistant varieties might be able to help once or twice but farmers cannot expect to use them as a silver bullet, and the only way to keep resistant varieties effective is through a 4 year rotation, at minimum.</p> <p>Clubroot was detected in Renn’s fields 4 years ago, and he grew canola again for the first time in 2016. At the end of the season the county officials did not detect clubroot in those fields. Speaking to the pathotype-specific nature of resistant varieties and the breakdown of their utility, Renn states “It seems to me that it’s becoming harder and harder to find new forms of clubroot resistance. The hope that we will be able to develop resistance in the plant that lasts forever is not realistic, so crop rotation is definitely going to play a large part in clubroot management.” In Ontario we have the opportunity to grow many crops in rotation, and canola growers should ensure rotations are long to manage clubroot as well as other pests like swede midge.</p> <p><a href="http://www.canolawatch.org/2013/04/04/rotations-role-in-clubroot-management/"><img class="wp-image-13340 size-full aligncenter" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-rotation-effect-2-year-Gary-Peng-AAFC.jpg" alt="Photos from Gary Peng from AAFC from clubroot trials in Quebec. Clubroot resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible canola varieties were grown on clubroot infested soil on rotations that ranged from continuous canola to canola every 5 years. This photo show how a 2 year rotation leads to up to 100% yield loss for susceptible and moderately susceptible varieties, and low yields for resistant varieties. " width="500" height="241" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-rotation-effect-2-year-Gary-Peng-AAFC.jpg 500w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-rotation-effect-2-year-Gary-Peng-AAFC-300x145.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 500px) 100vw, 500px" /></a></p> <div id="attachment_13341" style="width: 510px" class="wp-caption aligncenter"><a href="http://www.canolawatch.org/2013/04/04/rotations-role-in-clubroot-management/"><img class="wp-image-13341 size-full" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-rotation-effect-5-year-Gary-Peng-AAFC.jpg" alt="Photos from Gary Peng from AAFC from clubroot trials in Quebec. Clubroot resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible canola varieties were grown on clubroot infested soil on rotations that ranged from continuous canola to canola every 5 years. This photo show how a 5 year rotation leads to up to low yields for susceptible and moderately susceptible varieties, and good yields for resistant varieties." width="500" height="256" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-rotation-effect-5-year-Gary-Peng-AAFC.jpg 500w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Clubroot-rotation-effect-5-year-Gary-Peng-AAFC-300x154.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 500px) 100vw, 500px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Photos from Gary Peng, AAFC. Clubroot resistant (R), moderately susceptible (MS) and susceptible (S) canola varieties were grown on clubroot infested soil in Quebec on rotations that ranged from continuous canola to canola every 5 years. Click the image to see more at www.canolawatch.org</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Sanitation &#8211; Rough Cleaning is Effective</strong></p> <p>Clubroot can be transferred in any way that soil moves from field to field, including through water movement, wind erosion and on farm equipment. The prospect of sanitizing field equipment is not one farmers or custom applicators happily welcome. It is a lot of work. But it is a key step in preventing or reducing the spread of the disease. Putting effort into sanitation will allow us to retain canola as a viable crop into the future.</p> <p>Rough cleaning or scraping all loose soil off of equipment and tires between fields can take as little as 20 minutes and can remove 90% or more of clubroot spores present on the equipment.  Recall that a few spores can turn into billions of spores over the course of one season, so this level of sanitation is reasonably easy and effective. This is recommended for all growers in areas where clubroot has been detected, where equipment or custom operators are shared with those working clubroot-positive fields, or for farmers who feel they are at risk. Work infested fields last and try not to run equipment in fields with wet soils that will cake equipment and tires. Follow up with pressure washing and sanitizing with a 1% bleach solution when equipment is put away. <a href="http://www.canolacouncil.org/publication-resources/print-resources/crop-production-resources/managing-clubroot-equipment-sanitation-guide/">Click Here</a> for a guide on sanitation and knowing your risk of clubroot.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Please contact Meghan Moran (<a href="mailto:meghan.moran@ontario.ca">meghan.moran@ontario.ca</a> 519-546-1725) if any clubbed roots are found in the 2017 growing season.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Thank you to the Canola Council of Canada, <a href="http://www.canolawatch.org">www.CanolaWatch.org</a> and <a href="http://www.clubroot.ca">www.clubroot.ca</a>  for resources on clubroot identification and management. Thank you to Renn Breitkreuz of Alberta, and <a href="http://www.ontariocanolagrowers.ca">Ontario Canola Growers Association</a> for their assistance with this article. </em></p> <p><em>Feature image: North Dakota State University</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/understanding-clubroot-life-cycle-resistant-varieties-and-management/feed/ 0 2017-03-30 14:51 +00:00 2017-03-30 10:51 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13331 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/phosphorus-and-potassium-management-for-corn-soybeans-and-wheat/ Corn Soil Fertility Soybean Winter Wheat Phosphorus and Potassium Management for Corn, Soybeans, and Wheat Crop yields have increased significantly since fertility recommendations were developed in Ontario. Crop nutrient uptake and grain nutrient removal have increased proportionately.  A study was initiated in 2011 with funding from the Grain Farmers of Ontario to evaluate a corn-soybean-wheat rotation on four sites with relatively low soil test P and K levels.  Areas within each test site were built... Tue, 28 Mar 2017 17:49:25 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/phosphorus-and-potassium-management-for-corn-soybeans-and-wheat/#respond Horst Bohner <div class="pf-content"><p>Crop yields have increased significantly since fertility recommendations were developed in Ontario. Crop nutrient uptake and grain nutrient removal have increased proportionately.  A study was initiated in 2011 with funding from the Grain Farmers of Ontario to evaluate a corn-soybean-wheat rotation on four sites with relatively low soil test P and K levels.  Areas within each test site were built to moderate P, moderate K, and moderate P and K soil test levels (P&gt;20 ppm, K&gt;120 ppm).  High rates of P and/or K fertilizer were applied during the first few years of the study to build these areas.  These built P and K soils can now be compared to soils with low background fertility.  This project will test if current P and K recommendations ensure the most economic yields in high yield environments.  Ontario recommendations are based on the “sufficiency approach” which aims to supply enough fertilizer for a given crop with the most economic rate of fertilizer for the year of application.  Another approach to fertilizer application is the “build and maintain” approach which aims to build or draw down soil tests to a reasonable level and maintain soil tests at those levels.  These two approaches to fertilization will also be compared.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>Fertilizer was broadcast at high rates across specific blocks in every year to build up fertility (400 lbs/ac of product). One block was built with only P, another only K, and a third had both P and K built.  An untreated block with low background fertility was left untreated at each site.  All blocks and starter treatments were replicated 4 times whenever possible.  The highest starter treatment rates were 50 lbs/ac of actual P and 50 lbs/ac of actual K.  These starter rates were chosen to supply the approximate rates of recommended fertilizer under the “sufficiency approach”.  Soil test values have now been built to moderate levels in those blocks that received fertilizer to the desired levels (P&gt;20, K&gt;120).  Yield data from the next three growing seasons (2017, 2018, and 2019) will give the best comparison of the “sufficiency” approach to the “build and maintain” approach since previous years may have been influenced by the build-up phase of the experiment.  Tables 1 to 3 present the most up to date yield results based on the last 3 growing seasons.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p>Corn yields responded to a starter blend of P and K in low background fertility levels (P&lt;20, K&lt;120) by 30 bu/ac across the 17 site-years of this study. On “built” soils (P&gt;20, K&gt;120) corn responded to a P and K starter by 10 bu/ac (Table 1). The highest corn yields were achieved with a built soil test value plus a starter fertilizer containing P or a starter containing a blend of P and K.  Averaged across background fertility, liquid starter added 9 bu/ac, dry P added 12 bu/ac, K added 13 bu/ac, and the P and K together added 22 bu/ac compared to no starter fertilizer. This study supports earlier findings that corn is highly responsive to starter fertilizers especially when soil test levels are low.  It also demonstrates that even when soils are built starter fertilizers are still necessary to maximize yields.  Most notably corn yields were 13 bu/ac higher on built soils compared to low background fertility even when a high rate of P and K starter was applied.</p> <p><strong>Table 1: Corn Yield Response to Background Fertility and Starter Fertilizer </strong>[17 site-years]</p> <table style="width: 711.015625px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 213px;" rowspan="2">Starter (per ac)</td> <td style="width: 382px;" colspan="4">Background treatment</td> <td style="width: 96.015625px;" rowspan="2">Average across background</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 98px;">P&lt;20 K&lt;120</td> <td style="width: 95px;">P&gt;20 K&lt;120</td> <td style="width: 94px;">P&lt;20 K&gt;120</td> <td style="width: 95px;">P&gt;20 K&gt;120</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 691.015625px;" colspan="6">Bu/ac</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 213px;">No fertilizer</td> <td style="width: 98px;">157 d</td> <td style="width: 95px;">163 c</td> <td style="width: 94px;">174 c</td> <td style="width: 95px;">190 c</td> <td style="width: 96.015625px;">171 d</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 213px;">6-24-6 @ 3-5 gal in furrow</td> <td style="width: 98px;">170 c</td> <td style="width: 95px;">177 b</td> <td style="width: 94px;">179 b</td> <td style="width: 95px;">194 b</td> <td style="width: 96.015625px;">180 c</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 213px;">MAP @ 100 lbs (2&#215;2)</td> <td style="width: 98px;">172 bc</td> <td style="width: 95px;">174 b</td> <td style="width: 94px;">188 a</td> <td style="width: 95px;">198 ab</td> <td style="width: 96.015625px;">183 b</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 213px;">0-0-60 @ 80 lbs (2&#215;2)</td> <td style="width: 98px;">175 b</td> <td style="width: 95px;">192 a</td> <td style="width: 94px;">174 c</td> <td style="width: 95px;">195 b</td> <td style="width: 96.015625px;">184 b</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 213px;">6-28-28 @ 90-270 lbs (2&#215;2)</td> <td style="width: 98px;">187 a</td> <td style="width: 95px;">195 a</td> <td style="width: 94px;">190 a</td> <td style="width: 95px;">200 a</td> <td style="width: 96.015625px;">193 a</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Means followed by the same letter are not statistically different within a column at P=0.05.</p> <p>Soybean yields responded to a starter blend of P and K in low background fertility soils (P&lt;20, K&lt;120) by 4 bu/ac across the 17 site-years of this study. On “built” soils (P&gt;20, K&gt;120) soybeans did not respond to any starter fertilizer treatment. The highest soybean yields were achieved with a built soil test value. Averaged across background fertility, liquid starter added 1 bu/ac, dry P added 2 bu/ac, K added 1 bu/ac, and the P and K together added 3 bu/ac compared to no starter fertilizer.  On low background fertility soils, liquid starter added 2 bu/ac, dry P added 2 bu/ac, K added 1 bu/ac, and a blend of P and K added 4 bu/ac compared to no starter fertilizer (Table 2).  This study supports earlier findings that soybeans respond to starter fertilizers when soil test levels are low.  This study has shown that K by itself is not sufficient to maximize soybean yields, P is also critical. This study also supports earlier findings that when soils are built starter fertilizers do not add yield to soybeans. Soybean yields were 4 bu/ac higher on built soils compared to low background fertility even when a high rate of P and K starter was applied.</p> <p><strong>Table 2. Soybean Yield Response to Background Fertility and Starter Fertilizer </strong>[17 site-years]</p> <table style="width: 729.2px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 211px;" rowspan="2">Starter (per ac)</td> <td style="width: 375px;" colspan="4">Background treatment</td> <td style="width: 109.2px;" rowspan="2">Average across background</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 92px;">P&lt;20 K&lt;120</td> <td style="width: 97px;">P&gt;20 K&lt;120</td> <td style="width: 91px;">P&lt;20 K&gt;120</td> <td style="width: 95px;">P&gt;20 K&gt;120</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 695.2px;" colspan="6">Bu/ac</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 211px;">No starter</td> <td style="width: 92px;">53 c</td> <td style="width: 97px;">55 b</td> <td style="width: 91px;">55 c</td> <td style="width: 95px;">60 a</td> <td style="width: 109.2px;">56 d</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 211px;">6-24-6 @ 3 gal in furrow</td> <td style="width: 92px;">55 b</td> <td style="width: 97px;">56 b</td> <td style="width: 91px;">56 b</td> <td style="width: 95px;">61 a</td> <td style="width: 109.2px;">57 c</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 211px;">MAP @ 100 lbs (2&#215;2)</td> <td style="width: 92px;">55 b</td> <td style="width: 97px;">56 b</td> <td style="width: 91px;">58 a</td> <td style="width: 95px;">61 a</td> <td style="width: 109.2px;">58 b</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 211px;">0-0-60 @ 80 lbs (2&#215;2)</td> <td style="width: 92px;">54 b</td> <td style="width: 97px;">58 a</td> <td style="width: 91px;">54 c</td> <td style="width: 95px;">60 a</td> <td style="width: 109.2px;">57 c</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 211px;">6-28-28 @ 90-180 lbs (2&#215;2)</td> <td style="width: 92px;">57 a</td> <td style="width: 97px;">59 a</td> <td style="width: 91px;">58 a</td> <td style="width: 95px;">61 a</td> <td style="width: 109.2px;">59 a</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Means followed by the same letter are not statistically different within a column at P=0.05.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-13332" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-1-300x225.jpg" alt="2017 Feb - Bohner - Figure 1" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-1-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-1-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></p> <p>Figure 1. Severe K deficiency (left) in soybeans.</p> <p>Winter wheat yields responded to a starter blend of P and K in low background fertility levels (P&lt;20, K&lt;120) by 14 bu/ac across the 13 site-years of this study. Wheat showed the same response to a P only starter on low background fertility soils (14 bu/ac).  On “built” soils (P&gt;20, K&gt;120) wheat did not show a statistical yield response to any starter fertilizer over the untreated although the P only starter did provide a 4 bu/ac numerical advantage over the untreated (Table 3). Averaged across background fertility, liquid starter added 4 bu/ac, dry P added 10 bu/ac, K provided no additional yield, and a blend of P and K together added 10 bu/ac compared to no starter fertilizer.  This study found that wheat is responsive to starter fertilizers especially when soil test levels are low.  It also demonstrates that winter wheat is highly responsive to starter P.  Most notably wheat yields were 11 bu/ac higher on built soils compared to low background fertility even when a high rate of P and K starter was applied.</p> <p><strong>Table 3. Wheat Yield Response to Background Fertility and Starter Fertilizer </strong>[13 site-years]</p> <table style="width: 722.97px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 190px;" rowspan="2">Starter In-furrow (per ac)</td> <td style="width: 389px;" colspan="4">Background treatment</td> <td style="width: 108.97px;" rowspan="2">Average across background</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 105px;">P&lt;20 K&lt;120</td> <td style="width: 91px;">P&gt;20 K&lt;120</td> <td style="width: 97px;">P&lt;20 K&gt;120</td> <td style="width: 96px;">P&gt;20 K&gt;120</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 687.97px;" colspan="6">Bu/ac</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 190px;">No fertilizer</td> <td style="width: 105px;">66 c</td> <td style="width: 91px;">83 c</td> <td style="width: 97px;">69 c</td> <td style="width: 96px;">88 ab</td> <td style="width: 108.97px;">76 c</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 190px;">6-24-6 @ 3-5 gal</td> <td style="width: 105px;">72 b</td> <td style="width: 91px;">85 bc</td> <td style="width: 97px;">75 b</td> <td style="width: 96px;">89 ab</td> <td style="width: 108.97px;">80 b</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 190px;">MAP @ 80-100 lbs</td> <td style="width: 105px;">80 a</td> <td style="width: 91px;">88 ab</td> <td style="width: 97px;">85 a</td> <td style="width: 96px;">92 a</td> <td style="width: 108.97px;">86 a</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 190px;">0-0-60 @ 70-80 lbs</td> <td style="width: 105px;">69 c</td> <td style="width: 91px;">88 ab</td> <td style="width: 97px;">69 c</td> <td style="width: 96px;">86 b</td> <td style="width: 108.97px;">78 bc</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 190px;">6-28-28 @ 90-225 lbs</td> <td style="width: 105px;">80 a</td> <td style="width: 91px;">90 a</td> <td style="width: 97px;">84 a</td> <td style="width: 96px;">91 a</td> <td style="width: 108.97px;">86 a</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Means followed by the same letter are not statistically different within a column at P=0.05</p> <p><strong> <img class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-13333" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-2a-300x225.jpg" alt="2017 Feb - Bohner - Figure 2a" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-2a-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-2a-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-Feb-Bohner-Figure-2a.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></strong></p> <p>Figure 2. Wheat on the left had phosphorous (11-52-0) applied and on the right had potassium (0-0-60) applied, demonstrating the importance of P in wheat production.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Next Steps</strong></p> <p>On most crops and field site locations, starter fertilizers increased yields compared to no fertilizer, especially in wheat and corn and on soybeans when soil P and K levels were low. The highest yields tended to be produced from plots with moderate background P and K (broadcast P and K) in conjunction with a starter.  Soybeans did not show a response to starter fertilizer on soils with higher background fertility.  Now that specific plots have been built to moderate levels of P and K, and other plots have relatively low soil test P and K levels, fertilizer management strategies may be tested (the “sufficiency” versus the “build and maintain” approach).  Yields to date show that building the soil adds 13 bu/ac of corn, 4 bu/ac of soybeans, and 11 bu/ac of wheat compared to fertilizing the crop under the present rates of the sufficiency approach.  It is crucial that this experiment be continued for at least 3 additional years to get the most robust comparison of the two systems.  An economic analysis will be conducted at the end of this study to determine which approach is the most economical way to grow crops in Ontario.</p> <p>Contributors to this project: D. Hooker, H. Bohner, P. Johnson, B. Rosser, G. Stewart, and K. Janovicek</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/phosphorus-and-potassium-management-for-corn-soybeans-and-wheat/feed/ 0 2017-03-28 17:49 +00:00 2017-03-28 13:49 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13296 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/soybean-weeds-free/ Weeds Soybean – Weeds Free? Previously we discussed the possible benefits of using a pre-emergence soil applied herbicide application in a 2-pass weed management plan.  Those benefits include protecting yield, providing a wider window for a post-emergence application and as a resistance management strategy. In this installment we look at the effect of weed emergence, following a pre-emergence application, on soybean yield and examine the... Tue, 28 Mar 2017 12:02:35 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/soybean-weeds-free/#respond Ridgetown Campus Weed Research <div class="pf-content"><p>Previously we discussed the possible benefits of using a pre-emergence soil applied herbicide application in a 2-pass weed management plan.  Those benefits include protecting yield, providing a wider window for a post-emergence application and as a resistance management strategy.</p> <p>In this installment we look at the effect of weed emergence, following a pre-emergence application, on soybean yield and examine the critical time frame to maintain soybean weed- free.</p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13297" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-2.jpg" alt="WF 2" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-2.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-2-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-2-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13298" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-3.jpg" alt="WF 3" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-3.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-3-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-3-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13299" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-4.jpg" alt="WF 4" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-4.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-4-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-4-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13300" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-5.jpg" alt="WF 5" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-5.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-5-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-5-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13301" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-6.jpg" alt="WF 6" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-6.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-6-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-6-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13302" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-7.jpg" alt="WF 7" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-7.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-7-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-7-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13303" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-8.jpg" alt="WF 8" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-8.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-8-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-8-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13304" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-9.jpg" alt="WF 9" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-9.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-9-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-9-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p><img class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-13305" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-10.jpg" alt="WF 10" width="960" height="720" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-10.jpg 960w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-10-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WF-10-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px" /></p> <p>Please stay tuned for more from <strong>“Situational with Sikkema” </strong>in the coming weeks.</p> <p>Thanks to Grain Farmers of Ontario for their support of this research and our research program.  <a href="http://www.gfo.ca/">http://www.gfo.ca/</a></p> <p>Post prepared for Peter Sikkema by Todd Cowan, CCA-ON, Huron Research Station/University of Guelph</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/soybean-weeds-free/feed/ 0 2017-03-28 12:02 +00:00 2017-03-28 08:02 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=13291 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/did-you-hear-weve-made-some-great-improvements-to-the-agricultural-information-atlas/ Uncategorized agricultural information atlas farm fire OMAFRA Tools and Resources Did you hear? We’ve made some great improvements to the Agricultural Information Atlas! We’re excited to let you know about the latest updates that we made to the Agricultural Information Atlas (AIA). What is the AIA? It’s OMAFRA&#8217;s free, easy-to-use online tool that can help you to: Develop nutrient management strategies and plans Plan tile drainage for your farm Develop a farm sketch for Pest Assessment Reports and Bee Yard Registration and other government... Thu, 23 Mar 2017 19:15:08 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/did-you-hear-weve-made-some-great-improvements-to-the-agricultural-information-atlas/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>We’re excited to let you know about the latest updates that we made to the <a href="https://www.gisapplication.lrc.gov.on.ca/AIA/Index.html?viewer=AIA.AIA&amp;locale=en-US">Agricultural Information Atlas</a> (AIA). What is the AIA? It’s OMAFRA&#8217;s free, easy-to-use online tool that can help you to:</p> <ul> <li>Develop nutrient management strategies and plans</li> <li>Plan tile drainage for your farm</li> <li>Develop a farm sketch for Pest Assessment Reports and Bee Yard Registration and other government programs, including the Great Lakes Agricultural Stewardship Initiative (GLASI)</li> </ul> <p>So, what are the changes?</p> <p>The AIA is now housed on a new platform. If you are a current user of the AIA, you’ll need to update your bookmarks to the <a href="https://www.gisapplication.lrc.gov.on.ca/AIA/Index.html?viewer=AIA.AIA&amp;locale=en-US">new URL</a> so you can find the AIA quickly and easily. Better yet, the AIA is now mobile-friendly. Open it up on your phone or tablet for quick access while you’re in the field or on the go.</p> <p>Our updates include new features and tools, such as:</p> <ul> <li>The ability to add your own user data, such as GPS points or shape files</li> <li>Auto-population of 911 addresses</li> <li>The removal of the “Label Map” function, and an added “export markup” function (i.e. text and graphics) that allows you to save and bring data back in again at another time</li> <li>Right-clicking on the map will give you quick and easy access to GPS co-ordinates, basic markup tools and other functions</li> <li>2015 southwestern Ontario imagery data</li> </ul> <p>We’ve also added a Farm Fire Safety Sketch template in the “Create Map” section. You can use the template to develop a sketch of your farm showing features like fire risk areas, utility shut-off points, water sources, livestock barns and access routes for emergency vehicles. This sketch can be shared with local first responders to have on-hand in case of a fire or another emergency. Visit the <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/barnfire/safetysketch.htm">Farm Fire and Emergency Sketch web page</a> for help with making a sketch for your operation.</p> <p>Most of the changes we made were based on user feedback. Let us know what you think about the updates and new features at <a href="mailto:omafra.gis@ontario.ca">omafra.gis@ontario.ca</a> so that we can continue to improve the AIA.</p> <p>Need help with the AIA? Our <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/landuse/gis/agatlas-help.htm">Help page</a> answers some common questions. You can also contact the Agricultural Information Contact Centre at 1-877-424-1300 or <a href="mailto:ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca">ag.info.omafra@ontario.ca</a>.</p> <div id="attachment_13292" style="width: 578px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="wp-image-13292" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/farm-fire-sketch.jpg" alt="Picture showing where to find the Farm Fire Safety Sketch Template and other new tools" width="568" height="475" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/farm-fire-sketch.jpg 748w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/farm-fire-sketch-300x251.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 568px) 100vw, 568px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">The Farm Fire Safety Sketch template and other new tools are now available in the Agricultural Information Atlas</p></div> <p><a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/landuse/gis/agatlas-help.htm"><strong>ontario.ca/agmaps</strong></a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/03/did-you-hear-weve-made-some-great-improvements-to-the-agricultural-information-atlas/feed/ 0 2017-03-23 19:15 +00:00 2017-03-23 15:15 -04:00