Field Crop News http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14186 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/making-soybean-silage/ Forages Soybean forage silage soybean Making Soybean Silage Co-author: Horst Bohner In 2017, wet growing conditions have made it difficult to put up high quality forages. A wet spring delayed planting in many regions, and the cool summer and an early frost may prevent some soybeans from reaching their full potential as an oilseed crop. These circumstances may encourage producers to consider harvesting soybeans for silage. Before committing... Thu, 21 Sep 2017 14:00:59 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/making-soybean-silage/#respond Christine O'Reilly <div class="pf-content"><p><em>Co-author: Horst Bohner</em></p> <p>In 2017, wet growing conditions have made it difficult to put up high quality forages. A wet spring delayed planting in many regions, and the cool summer and an early frost may prevent some soybeans from reaching their full potential as an oilseed crop. These circumstances may encourage producers to consider harvesting soybeans for silage.</p> <p>Before committing to making silage, check the labels on all crop protection products that have been used on the soybeans. Some will list a pre-harvest interval (PHI) for silage. Other products will clearly state that the formula is not safe for use on feed, forage, or silage. There will be products that do not mention silage or feed on the label. These have not been tested for their effects on livestock, and crops treated with them should not be fed.</p> <p>Once it has been determined whether the soybeans could be safely fed, the next step is to clear the change of purpose on insured acres with Agricorp (1-888-247-4999).</p> <p>Soybeans can be ensiled right up to the R7 stage (full maturity), but highest feed quality is usually achieved at R3 (beginning pod) or R4 (full pod). Plants need to be wilted down to 60-65% moisture. Use of a roller-conditioner may speed drying time while minimizing losses. Soybeans have more buffer capacity than corn, and their low sugar/high oil content can make proper fermentation a challenge. Silage inoculants and added sugar – as grain corn or molasses – can increase the odds of success. Another strategy is to make soybean-corn silage by mixing the two crops in a 2:1 ratio before packing into the silo. The sugars and starches in the corn can help overcome the buffering tendencies of the soybeans.</p> <p>The nutritional value of soybean is comparable to early bloom alfalfa, and this remains consistent as the plant matures although how it feeds out varies. As the oil content of the beans increases with maturity, later harvested plants may have lower fibre digestibility and reduced intakes. Soybean silage is often most palatable as no more than 50% of the ration (dry matter basis).</p> <p>Soybeans were first introduced to Ontario as a forage crop, and are routinely used in some northeastern states as part of dairy rations. With a bit of planning, soybean silage can be used to increase the amount of quality forage available.</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>Brown, C., and Bohner, H. 2012. <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2012/09/5299/">Soybeans as a forage crop</a>. Online. Field Crop News. fieldcropnews.com/2012/09/5299/</p> <p>Manitoba Agriculture. Date Unknown. <a href="http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/forages/print,ensiling-soybeans.html">Ensiling Soybeans</a>. Online. www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/forages/print,ensiling-soybeans.html</p> <p>Undersander, D., Jarek, K., Anderson, T., Schneider, N., and Milligan, L. 2007. <a href="http://ipcm.wisc.edu/blog/2013/08/a-guide-to-making-soybean-silage/">A guide to making soybean silage</a>. Online. Forage and Grazinglands doi:10.1094/FG-2007-0119-01- MG</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/making-soybean-silage/feed/ 0 2017-09-21 14:00 +00:00 2017-09-21 10:00 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14180 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-14-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 14, 2017 Best Management Practices for Late Planted Winter Wheat With many soybean fields across the countryside just starting to change colour, harvest is not likely to begin anytime soon.  A cool, wet spring delayed soybean planting in much of the province and cooler temperatures in August and September have pushed harvest back this fall compared to the last two years.  As... Thu, 14 Sep 2017 17:42:42 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-14-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Best Management Practices for Late Planted Winter Wheat</strong></p> <p>With many soybean fields across the countryside just starting to change colour, harvest is not likely to begin anytime soon.  A cool, wet spring delayed soybean planting in much of the province and cooler temperatures in August and September have pushed harvest back this fall compared to the last two years.  As a result, growers are wondering whether or not they will be able to get winter wheat planted at an optimum time.</p> <p>With winter wheat having huge benefits to a cropping system (an additional 10 bu/ac to the following corn crop and an additional 5 bu/ac to the following soybean crop) growers are encouraged to keep winter wheat in the rotation this fall if possible.  Delayed planting can result in lower yields so being diligent this fall with our best management practices for establishing the winter wheat crop will be very important to reduce the risk of significant yield loss.</p> <p><strong>Crop Rotation</strong></p> <p>Although the soybean crop may be delayed it is still important to follow a good crop rotation to get the greatest yield benefits.  If planting after soybeans is not possible, plant winter wheat after other crops such as edible beans, peas or canola.  If planting after silage corn, be sure to implement best management practices for fusarium head blight by selecting a variety that is moderately resistant to fusarium and apply a fungicide at the T3 timing.  Do not plant wheat after wheat as there are a number of disease issues including fusarium and take all that can negatively impact yield.</p> <p><strong>Variety Selection</strong></p> <p>When delayed planting is likely, select varieties with good winter survival. Delayed planting can result in reduced root development‎ and less tillers in the fall thereby increasing the risk of winterkill. 2017 data on winter survival, yield, disease resistance, lodging, etc. for winter wheat varieties grown in Ontario is now available on the Ontario Cereal Crop Committee website at GoCereals.ca.   When looking at the data, select varieties that perform well in your area across a number of sites and years. Use high quality seed with excellent germination as well as a seed treatment to help protect against seedling diseases.</p> <p><strong>Plant Population</strong></p> <p>The optimum date to seed winter wheat varies across the province.  In southwestern Ontario the optimum date is mid-October, south-central Ontario mid-late September, central Ontario mid-September and eastern Ontario early September (Figure 1).  At the optimum timing, winter wheat should be seeded at 1.4 &#8211; 1.5 million seeds/acre.  This can very slightly depending on the variety so check the label for the particular variety you want to grow.  When planting is delayed, reduced tillering needs to be compensated for.  Therefore, you should increase the seeding rate by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre for every week you delay planting.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14181" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-1024x871.png" alt="Figure 1: Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario, OMAFRA Pub 811." width="1024" height="871" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-1024x871.png 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-300x255.png 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1-768x653.png 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_f1.png 1164w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1</strong>: Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario, OMAFRA Pub 811.</p> <p><strong>Starter Fertilizer</strong></p> <p>Winter wheat is very responsive to starter fertilizer and phosphorus fertilization in particular.  It provides nutrients for early growth and promotes root development.   Past Ontario research has shown that seed-placed starter fertilizer increases yields, on average, by 7.5 bu/ac (Table 1).  Starter fertilizer becomes even more critical when winter wheat planting is delayed as it also improves winter survival and crop uniformity the following spring.  Without starter fertilizer the winter wheat crop may be uneven resulting in challenges with disease management, specifically when trying to manage fusarium head blight.  Apply starter fertilizer to the winter wheat crop based on an accredited Ontario soil test.</p> <p><strong>Table 1</strong>: Yield Response to Starter Fertilizer – Johnson, McClure, Janovicek 2010–2013 – OMAFRA Pub 811.</p> <table width="673"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="2" width="112"><strong>Fertilizer</strong></p> <p><strong>(In furrow)</strong></td> <td rowspan="2" width="102"><strong>P Applied</strong></td> <td colspan="3" width="459"><strong>Yield Increase over Check</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="151"><strong>Soil Test P 6-13 ppm<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>(10 sites )</strong></td> <td width="155"><strong>Soil Test P 13-21 ppm<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>(9 sites)</strong></td> <td width="153"><strong>Soil Test P 21-56 ppm<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>(9 sites)</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="5" width="673"><strong>Liquid 6-24-6</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">10 US gal/acre</td> <td width="102">27lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">12.0%</td> <td width="155">6.2%</td> <td width="153">3.3%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">5 US gal/acre</td> <td width="102">12 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">9.7%</td> <td width="155">2.7%</td> <td width="153">1.8%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">2.5 US gal/acre</td> <td width="102">7 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">6.3%</td> <td width="155">2.9%</td> <td width="153">0.9%</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="5" width="673"><strong>Dry 7-34-20</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">50 lb/ac</td> <td width="102">17 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">10.9%</td> <td width="155">4.7%</td> <td width="153">3.5%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">150 lb/ac</td> <td width="102">52 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">17.3%</td> <td width="155">6.2%</td> <td width="153">4.8%</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="112">200 lb/ac</td> <td width="102">68 lb P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/ac</td> <td width="151">12%</td> <td width="155">3.5%</td> <td width="153">4.6%</td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" width="213"><strong>Average Check Yield</strong></td> <td width="151">79 bu/ac</td> <td width="155">88.5 bu/ac</td> <td width="153">89 bu/ac</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><sup>1</sup>Plant available P based on accredited Ontario soil test.</p> <p><strong>Table 2.  September 6 &#8211; 12, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14182" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_t1.jpg" alt="Table 2. September 6 - 12, 2017 Weather Data" width="540" height="435" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_t1.jpg 540w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_14_2017_t1-300x242.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 540px) 100vw, 540px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-14-2017/feed/ 0 2017-09-14 17:42 +00:00 2017-09-14 13:42 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14176 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-7-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – September 7, 2017 Gauging Corn Growth Stage for Frost Risks With a later than normal planting window and a summer growing season seemingly short on summer weather, some growers have been monitoring their corn growth stages and asking about gauging the risks associated with corn maturity and frost, particularly those who planted very late or have longer maturity hybrids. While there are still... Fri, 08 Sep 2017 13:57:52 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-7-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Gauging Corn Growth Stage for Frost Risks</strong></p> <p>With a later than normal planting window and a summer growing season seemingly short on summer weather, some growers have been monitoring their corn growth stages and asking about gauging the risks associated with corn maturity and frost, particularly those who planted very late or have longer maturity hybrids. While there are still several weeks left to the growing season, a few things growers trying to gauge their crop stage for frost risk may want to consider include:</p> <p><strong>Crop Staging</strong></p> <p>Clearly, the closer to maturity (black layer) the crop is, the less impact a frost event will have on the crop. For quick review:</p> <p>The emergence of silks is the R1 stage. As a rough guideline, once pollination occurs, it takes about 60 more days for the crop to reach physiological maturity. Thus, silk timing can give a bit of an indication of when maturity of the corn crop may be expected – a crop that pollinated around July 25<sup>th</sup> may be expected to reach maturity or black layer sometime around September 25<sup>th</sup>. While there can be some small differences across hybrid maturities, hybrid maturity ratings have a much more significant impact on the length of time in vegetative stages than reproductive stages.</p> <p>The R2 blister stage occurs following pollination when fertilized kernels are just beginning to develop, while the R3 milk stage occurs when kernels are turning yellow and are beginning to fill with an opaque milky fluid. Grain fill is rapid by the R3 stage, and maturity under normal conditions would be 5-6 weeks away.</p> <p>The R4 dough stage occurs when the milk solution turns pasty as starch continues to form, with some kernels beginning to dent as dough begins to turn to hard starch at the dent ends of kernels. Under normal conditions, the dough stage may be generally 3-5 weeks from maturity.</p> <p>The R5 dent stage occurs when the majority of kernels have dented, and the milk line, which separates the hard starch phase from the soft dough phase, progresses from the dent end towards the cob. The dent stage may last approximately 3 weeks.</p> <p>The R6 maturity or black layer stage marks physiological maturity. This occurs when a small layer of cells at the base of the kernel near where the kernel connects to the cob die and turn black, which marks the end of grain fill from the cob into the developing kernel. Maximum dry matter accumulation has occurred, so any frost or stress event after this stage will have little impact on yield unless harvestability is compromised. Black layer normally forms once milk line has reach the base of the kernel, although significant stress events (extended period of very cool average temperatures, significant defoliation) can result in black layer formation before the milk line has reached the base of the kernel.</p> <p><strong>Frost Severity</strong></p> <p>In regards to frost severity, a light frost (ie. 0°C) may damage or kill leaves, but not be cold enough, or last long enough to actually penetrate into the stem and kill the plant. While premature leaf death limits further grain fill from photosynthesis, a living stem can still translocate dry matter to the developing grain to continue to provide some grain fill after a light frost event.</p> <p>In the event where temperatures are low enough (ie. -2°C), or last long enough to penetrate and kill the entire plant, there is no ability of the plant to continue filling grain, and yield at that point has been fixed.</p> <p>Any frost event during the blister or milk stage would result in significant grain yield losses as significant grain fill is still yet to occur at these stages.</p> <p>A light frost event at the dough stage may reduce yields by 35% while a killing frost may reduce yields by 55% (Lauer, 2004).</p> <p>Yield loss in the dent stage depends on the relative time left to mature. A light frost at the beginning of dent stage may reduce yields by 25% while a killing frost may reduce yields by 40%. During the mid-dent stage, significant dry matter accumulation has occurred, and light and killing frosts may reduce yields around 5% and 10% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Estimating Time to Maturity</strong></p> <p>Time required to reach maturity can be estimated by knowing the approximate Crop Heat Units (CHU) required for each reproductive corn stage. A general approximation of CHU required to complete the various R growth stages in corn is presented in Table 1. Scouting corn for the crop stages described above and referring to Table 1 will give an indication of how many CHU are required for the corn crop to reach maturity.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.</strong> CHU Required to Complete Corn Reproductive Stages and Reach Maturity</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="111">Stage</td> <td width="189">CHU To Complete Crop Stage</td> <td width="113">CHU to Maturity</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R1 – Silking</td> <td width="189">340</td> <td width="113">1315</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R2 – Blister</td> <td width="189">175</td> <td width="113">975</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R3 – Milk</td> <td width="189">165</td> <td width="113">800</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R4 – Dough</td> <td width="189">310</td> <td width="113">635</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R5 &#8211; Dent</td> <td width="189">325</td> <td width="113">325</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">R6 &#8211; Maturity</td> <td width="189">0</td> <td width="113">0</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Source: OMAFRA Pub 811 <em>Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</em></p> <p>Comparing the estimated CHU required from Table 2 to an estimated number of CHU available until typical first frost date gives an idea of how much CHU would be available in an “average” year, and how close to maturity the crop may be for the average expected first frost date. Typical first killing frost dates based on 30 year climate normal across a selection of locations in the Province are presented in Table 2, while CHU values can be estimated through calculation tables in the <em>Field Scouting</em> chapter of Pub 811 <em>Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</em>, or through other weather information providers such as Farmzone.com or WeatherCentral.ca.</p> <p><strong>Table 2.</strong> Average long-term first killing frost dates at select locations in Ontario.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="111">Stage</td> <td width="189">Average First Killing Frost Date</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Ridgetown</td> <td width="189">October 10</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Exeter</td> <td width="189">October 3</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Elora</td> <td width="189">September 26</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Lindsay</td> <td width="189">September 26</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="111">Ottawa</td> <td width="189">September 29</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><br /> References</strong></p> <p>Lauer, J. 2004. Guidelines for Handling Corn Damaged by Frost Prior to Grain Maturity. University of Wisconsin. Accessed at http://corn.agronomy.wisc.edu/WCM/W156.aspx.</p> <p><strong>Table 3.  August 30 &#8211; September 5, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14177" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_07_2017_t1.jpg" alt="August 30 - September 5, 2017 Weather Data" width="538" height="429" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_07_2017_t1.jpg 538w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_September_07_2017_t1-300x239.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 538px) 100vw, 538px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/omafra-field-crop-report-september-7-2017/feed/ 0 2017-09-08 13:57 +00:00 2017-09-08 09:57 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14172 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/soil-fertility-benefits-of-wheat-in-rotation/ Soil Fertility Winter Wheat soil fertility wheat Soil fertility benefits of wheat in rotation Before long, the 2018 winter wheat crop will be seeded across the province (Figure 1). Long-term research at the University of Guelph’s Ridgetown campus shows that winter wheat in rotation provides an additional 10 bushels per acre to corn and 5 bushels to soybeans. At current crop prices, that means an extra 107 dollars per acre over a rotation. What... Tue, 05 Sep 2017 14:44:10 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/soil-fertility-benefits-of-wheat-in-rotation/#respond Jake Munroe <div class="pf-content"><p>Before long, the 2018 winter wheat crop will be seeded across the province (Figure 1). Long-term research at the University of Guelph’s Ridgetown campus shows that winter wheat in rotation provides an additional 10 bushels per acre to corn and 5 bushels to soybeans. At current crop prices, that means an extra 107 dollars per acre over a rotation.</p> <div class="mceTemp"></div> <div id="attachment_14173" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14173" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-300x225.jpg" alt="A field of winter wheat in Perth County, April 2017" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-1.-Winter-wheat-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1. Winter wheat field in Perth County, April 2017</p></div> <p><strong>What other benefits does wheat provide? And how might having wheat in rotation be positive from a soil fertility perspective? </strong></p> <p>Firstly, <strong>wheat in rotation improves the nitrogen use efficiency of corn</strong>. Recent research from the long-term rotation and tillage system trial in Ridgetown demonstrates that winter wheat in rotation reduces the maximum economic rate of nitrogen, or MERN, for corn. Between 2009 and 2013, the average MERN was 16 to 30 lbs/ac less with wheat compared to a corn-soybean rotation; in other words, it took less nitrogen to produce more corn.</p> <p>Wheat also <strong>provides an opportunity to seed a cover crop</strong>. In the case of red clover (Figure 2), the economics are clear: a full stand of red clover provides a nitrogen credit of 65-80 lbs per acre to the following corn crop. If red clover establishment is difficult, another cover crop, such as oats, can be seeded. Although oats will not provide any nitrogen, its fibrous root system will set up the next crop with improved soil structure – this is particularly helpful in dry years, where a good root system is critical for nutrient uptake.</p> <div id="attachment_14174" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14174" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-300x169.jpg" alt="Red clover cover crop" width="300" height="169" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-768x432.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-1024x576.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Figure-2.-Red-clover-910x512.jpg 910w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2. Red clover cover crop</p></div> <p>Winter wheat in rotation is also <strong>beneficial from a soil organic matter standpoint</strong>. Ontario research has generally found that the more frequently a small grain like wheat is in rotation, the higher the soil organic matter. Roots and belowground residue tend to contribute more to stable organic matter than aboveground residue, which may explain the positive effect of deep-rooted wheat. Organic matter is an important source of nutrients such as nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and boron.</p> <p>Finally, having winter wheat in rotation <strong>provides an excellent opportunity to address soil test levels</strong>. Use the period after wheat harvest to take soil samples. If you have soil test levels that have slipped in the last number of years, post-wheat harvest is an excellent time to make a nutrient application.</p> <p>A recent review of decades’ worth of Ontario research has shown that when soil test phosphorus is within the range of 12-18 ppm (Olsen), starter fertilizer rates (i.e. 20-30 lbs P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>/acre) achieve the most economic response for field crops. The same is true for potassium when levels are between 100-130 ppm. More recent research from OMAFRA/University of Guelph long term P and K trials suggest that slightly higher soil test values (e.g. &gt;20 ppm P and &gt;120 ppm K) may be worth pursuing in some circumstances.</p> <p>Regardless of your field&#8217;s soil fertility status or your fertility plan, broadcast fertilizer applications made in the summer after wheat harvest are at <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/">much lower risk</a> for environmental losses relative to applications made in the late fall.</p> <p>There you have it – a few more reasons to keep wheat as a regular part of your crop rotation.</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/09/soil-fertility-benefits-of-wheat-in-rotation/feed/ 0 2017-09-05 14:44 +00:00 2017-09-05 10:44 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14164 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/ Uncategorized Ontario Field Crop Report – August 31, 2017 Managing Phosphorus to Reduce Losses Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. Sufficient phosphorus fertility means improved root growth and winter hardiness, accelerated maturity, and improved yields. However, when phosphorus makes its way off of fields through runoff or tile drains, it can negatively impact the health of rivers and lakes. Lake Erie is the strongest example of this locally.... Thu, 31 Aug 2017 18:08:28 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Managing Phosphorus to Reduce Losses</strong></p> <p>Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. Sufficient phosphorus fertility means improved root growth and winter hardiness, accelerated maturity, and improved yields. However, when phosphorus makes its way off of fields through runoff or tile drains, it can negatively impact the health of rivers and lakes. Lake Erie is the strongest example of this locally. We have the knowledge and tools to minimize the risk of phosphorus loss while optimizing crop production. There are opportunities this fall to make simple decisions that will lower the risk of P leaving your fields.</p> <p>Phosphorus is not very mobile in the soil. It may move only millimeters in a given season. For years, it was thought that P is held so tightly to soil that it is only lost when there is soil erosion. We now know that there are also situations in which dissolved forms of phosphorus can be lost. These include runoff shortly after fertilizer or manure application or sub-surface drainage on soils with very high concentrations of P near the surface. The loss of dissolved P can be as or more important than the loss of soil-bound phosphorus, since it is a more potent form and it stimulates harmful algae more strongly.</p> <p>Ontario research to-date shows that the majority of phosphorus loss occurs during the non-growing season (October-April), often during a handful of events, including snowmelt (Figure 1.). At these times of year, rain that falls and snow that melts is less likely to infiltrate into the soil due to saturated or frozen conditions. Any water that runs off the surface of the soil will carry some P with it. Tile drains can also be a source of phosphorus. For phosphorus to be lost from tile drains it has to move with water through macropores such as cracks (Figure 2.) and earthworm burrows.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14165" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg" alt="The effects of spring runoff on a farm field in the 2017. The soil lost to water erosion carries phosphorus with it." width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1.</strong>  The effects of spring runoff on a farm field in the 2017. The soil lost to water erosion carries phosphorus with it.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14166" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2.jpg" alt="Cracking in a Brookston clay loam soil." width="831" height="746" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2.jpg 831w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2-300x269.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f2-768x689.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 831px) 100vw, 831px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 2.</strong>  Cracking in a Brookston clay loam soil.</p> <p><strong>Best practices to reduce the risk of phosphorus loss</strong></p> <p>Fertilizer and manure application timing have a large impact on the risk of phosphorus loss. Applications in late summer (e.g. August or September) generally have a low risk of loss. This is because evaporation is high and soils are drier and more likely to absorb rainfall than have it runoff at this time of year. If a broadcast application of P fertilizer is planned, target harvested wheat fields in the next few weeks. Risk of phosphorus loss becomes much greater in the fall, particularly into November and December.</p> <p>Placement of phosphorus is also critical for reducing risk of loss. Sub-surface banded phosphorus represents the lowest risk. The chance of banded P moving is almost nil. Incorporation reduces the risk of dissolved phosphorus loss from fertilizer or manure application, but must be weighed against the risk of soil erosion. Light incorporation followed a cover crop seeding (e.g. rye) is an example of a strategy to minimize both the risk of dissolved P and soil loss. Phosphorus broadcast and left on the surface late in fall is a high risk practice.</p> <p>Other strategies to improve placement of phosphorus include applying fertilizer with strip tillage operations or banding P at planting. Producers throughout the province are using these approaches with success (Figures 3 &amp; 4). By applying at least a portion of phosphorus in a strip or band, you can reduce tie-up in the soil and increase efficiency of uptake. In the case of strip till, the P is incorporated and protected and most of the soil is left undisturbed, which can reduce erosion. These practices are a win-win for your bottom line and the environment.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14167" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-1024x576.jpg" alt="Fertilizer is banded using a dry fertilizer unit during corn planting in Eastern Ontario, 2017 (Photo: W. Schneckenburger)" width="1024" height="576" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-1024x576.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-768x432.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3-910x512.jpg 910w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f3.jpg 1600w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 3.</strong>  Fertilizer is banded using a dry fertilizer unit during corn planting in Eastern Ontario, 2017 (Photo: W. Schneckenburger)</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14168" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-1024x768.jpg" alt="Figure 4. An air cart is used for multiple purposes, including banding fertilizer, on this farm in Essex county (Photo: H. Denotter)" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_f4.jpg 1600w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 4.</strong>  An air cart is used for multiple purposes, including banding fertilizer, on this farm in Essex county (Photo: H. Denotter)</p> <p>Finally, consider practices that improve water infiltration. Although losses of phosphorus through tile drains can play a significant role in Ontario, surface runoff is still the biggest risk factor on many soil types. Diverse crop rotations, cover crops and reduced tillage are all practices that improve infiltration and reduce erosion and runoff of phosphorus. When used together, such best practices not only reduce risk of P loss but also improve your bottom line.</p> <p><em>For more information on managing phosphorus effectively, consider attending </em><a href="https://www.eventbrite.ca/e/the-dirt-on-phosphorus-tickets-32954743525"><em>“The Dirt of Phosphorus”</em></a><em> on Friday, September 15<sup>th</sup> from 8am to 5pm at the North Huron Wescast Community Centre Arena in Wingham.</em></p> <p><strong>Table 1.   August 23-29, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14169" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_t1.jpg" alt="Table 1. August 23-29, 2017 Weather Data" width="538" height="429" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_t1.jpg 538w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_31_2017_t1-300x239.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 538px) 100vw, 538px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-31-2017/feed/ 0 2017-08-31 18:08 +00:00 2017-08-31 14:08 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14151 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-24-2017/ Crop Reports bean leaf beetle soybean aphids western bean cutworm WHITE MOULD Ontario Field Crop Report – August 24, 2017 With the delay in growing degree day accumulation and crop maturity, many fields are still in the ideal growth stages that put them at risk of some of our later season pests and diseases. Western bean cutworm (WBC) Peak moth flight for western bean cutworm has finally passed for all regions of the province. Central and eastern counties were the... Thu, 24 Aug 2017 13:22:43 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-24-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>With the delay in growing degree day accumulation and crop maturity, many fields are still in the ideal growth stages that put them at risk of some of our later season pests and diseases.</p> <p><strong>Western bean cutworm (WBC)</strong></p> <p>Peak moth flight for western bean cutworm has finally passed for all regions of the province. Central and eastern counties were the last to reach peak during the second week of August. Peak egg laying follows shortly after peak moth flight. Fields in central and eastern Ontario are also delayed. Fields in southern Ontario should be scouted for egg masses and larval activity. An insecticide application is warranted if thresholds are reached and there are still fresh silks present on the ears. Dry beans also should be scouted now that pods are present. WBC are difficult to scout for in dry beans, therefore focus on looking for their pod feeding instead.<span id="more-14151"></span> If small holes are easy to find in a field, a spray application can effectively control the larvae and reduce the risk of reduced seed quality and picks caused by WBC. For more information on scouting and thresholds, go to <a href="http://www.cornpest.ca">www.cornpest.ca</a>.</p> <p><strong>Bean leaf beetle (BLB)</strong></p> <p>First generation adults are a concern in food grade, Identity Preserved (IP), seed soybeans and edible beans across Ontario this time of year.  Bean leaf beetle can cause defoliation but rarely does leaf feeding reach threshold and impact yield.  The real risk is the pod feeding they can do, as the holes open the pods up to the development of pod diseases, impacting seed quality (Fig. 1). BLB can directly impact yield by clipping pods off of the plants. Food grade, IP, seed soybean and dry bean fields in the R4 to early R6 stages should be assessed for pod damage and clipping. If 10% of the soybean pods inspected within a field have feeding injury, a spray is warranted. With the higher value and stringent quality standards in dry edible beans, if 5%–8% of the pods inspected have feeding scars, control may be necessary. If pods are being clipped and found on the ground, an application is also warranted. Ensure that adults are still presently active in the field before a spray is applied and consider pre-harvest harvest intervals before making a spray decision.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14152" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14152" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg" alt="Figure 1: Bean leaf beetle pod damage. (Photo by H Bohner, OMAFRA)" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1: Bean leaf beetle pod damage (Photo by H Bohner, OMAFRA)</p></div> <p><strong>Soybean aphids</strong><strong> (SBA)</strong></p> <p>Soybean aphids are reaching thresholds in some fields, particularly in eastern Ontario. The milder weather is ideal for aphid development, though hopefully with the dewy mornings, some entomopathogens will start to develop. Fields are at risk until the early R6 stage of soybeans when more aphids are needed before control is warranted and pre-harvest intervals become a concern. The threshold for soybean aphids is 250 aphids per plant and actively increasing on 80% of the plants from the R1 up to and including the R5 stage of soybeans. Natural enemies play a big role in taking soybean aphids down below threshold, especially when aphid populations hover close to the threshold. The free Aphid Advisor app at <a href="http://www.aphidapp.com">www.aphidapp.com</a>, can help you make a spray decision. Enter the number of aphids per plant, as well as the various natural enemies observed in each field. The app will take into consideration the potential population growth rate of the aphids based on the weather forecast for your location, and compare it with the potential number of aphids that the current natural enemy population can consume and decide if they are able to keep the aphids below threshold or whether a spray is necessary.</p> <p><strong>White mould</strong></p> <p>White mould symptoms are showing up in many soybean and dry edible bean fields in the province (Fig. 2 &amp; 3). It is still early to assess the impact that infection can have on yield but research has shown fungicide applications beyond the R4 soybean stage do not limit further disease development.  In addition to causing yield loss, white mould can affect seed quality and seed production. Taking accurate notes about where and how much white mould occurs in each soybean field is important for future disease management planning. Tracking disease levels across years also will help determine the potential sclerotia (inoculum) load that may be present in a particular field. Recording disease and yield performance for different varieties will help in future variety selection for fields with a history of white mould.</p> <p>For more information on white mould and other soybean/corn diseases refer to the Crop Protection Network (<a href="http://cropprotectionnetwork.org">cropprotectionnetwork.org</a>) publications on the GFO website at <a href="http://gfo.ca/Production/Production-Resources">http://gfo.ca/Production/Production-Resources</a>.</p> <p>For more information on the control options available for these pests and diseases, refer to the Field Crop Protection Guide at: <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html</a></p> <div id="attachment_14154" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14154" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg" alt="Figure 2. White mould field symptoms (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f2-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2. White mould field symptoms (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14156" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14156" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-1024x683.jpg" alt="Figure 3. White mould infection on stems and sclerotia (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)" width="1024" height="683" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-1024x683.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-300x200.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_24_2017_f3-768x512.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 3. White mould infection on stems and sclerotia (Photo by A. Tenuta, OMAFRA/Crop Protection Network)</p></div> <p><strong>Table 1.   August 16-22, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14158" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Weather-Data-Aug-16-22.png" alt="Weather Data Aug 16-22" width="599" height="448" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Weather-Data-Aug-16-22.png 599w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Weather-Data-Aug-16-22-300x224.png 300w" sizes="(max-width: 599px) 100vw, 599px" /></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-24-2017/feed/ 0 2017-08-24 13:22 +00:00 2017-08-24 09:22 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14133 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/ Baute Bug Blog Soybean Trochanter mealybug Keeping an eye out for Trochanter mealybugs in soybean Author: Julia Mlynarek, Research Scientist &#8211; Field Entomology, AAFC-Harrow The Trochanter mealybugs Pseudococcus sorghiellus (Forbes) are small (at most 2mm), whitish, wax-covered insects that feed on plant roots (Fig. 1). Because of their size and life history, they are often overlooked but have been found in Southwestern Ontario. Trochanter mealybugs are part of a family of unarmored, scale insects that... Mon, 21 Aug 2017 21:42:34 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p><em><strong>Author: Julia Mlynarek, Research Scientist &#8211; Field Entomology, AAFC-Harrow</strong></em></p> <p>The Trochanter mealybugs <em>Pseudococcus</em> <em>sorghiellus</em> (Forbes) are small (at most 2mm), whitish, wax-covered insects that feed on plant roots (Fig. 1). Because of their size and life history, they are often overlooked but have been found in Southwestern Ontario. Trochanter mealybugs are part of a family of unarmored, scale insects that enjoy moist climates (Mani and Shivaraju 2016).</p> <div id="attachment_14134" style="width: 993px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/fig-1-mealybug-k-sim/" rel="attachment wp-att-14134"><img class="size-full wp-image-14134" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg" alt="Close up picture of a Fig. 1. Trochanter mealybug feeding on Soybean roots. (credit: K. Sim)" width="983" height="716" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg 983w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim-300x219.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-1-mealybug-K.-Sim-768x559.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 983px) 100vw, 983px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1. Close up picture of a Trochanter mealybug feeding on Soybean roots. (credit: K. Sim)</p></div> <p>More specifically, Trochanter mealybugs are root mealybugs and usually go unnoticed because they live and feed on the roots of soybeans (Fig. 2) and many other plants such as alfalfa, red and white clover, and corn. The affected soybeans may look like they have a potassium deficiency with yellowed leaf margins and/or stunted growth (Mani and Shivaraju 2016). It is native to the United States where it is considered a pest. There have been sightings of this species in Southwestern Ontario for a few years but have only been found in small patches and thus do not seem to cause much harm.</p> <div id="attachment_14135" style="width: 718px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/fig-2-mealybug-k-sim/" rel="attachment wp-att-14135"><img class="size-full wp-image-14135" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg" alt="Figure 2: Trochanter mealybugs on a soybean root. (credit: K. Sim)" width="708" height="1369" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim.jpg 708w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim-155x300.jpg 155w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Fig-2-mealybug-K.-Sim-530x1024.jpg 530w" sizes="(max-width: 708px) 100vw, 708px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2: Trochanter mealybugs on a soybean root. (credit: K. Sim)</p></div> <p>When mealybugs are young, they can move short distances from one plant to the next quite easily. They can also move with irrigation water; the waxy covering on their bodies helps them survive in water but their dispersal ability is quite limited (Mani and Shivaraju 2016).</p> <p>This summer, probably because of the wet spring, the Trochanter mealybug has been sighted in a soybean field in Harrow as well as a field near Chatham (O. Wally Pers. Comm.). Because of its patchy distribution and the fact that it does not seem to be doing much damage there is no need to panic but keeping an eye out for them is a good idea so that the distribution of this species can be monitored in the region.  If, in your field, you see a patch of stunted soybean plants or think they may have potassium deficiency, pull out one of those plants and check the roots (Fig. 2). If there are oval waxy insects crawling around on the roots or in the soil surrounding it, you will know that there are trochanter mealybugs in that patch and your plants do not have a potassium deficiency.</p> <p>If you do find the Trochanter mealybug in your fields, please do not hesitate to contact me (<a href="mailto:julia.mlynarek@canada.ca">julia.mlynarek@canada.ca</a> or 519-738-1227).</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/keeping-an-eye-out-for-trochanter-mealybugs-in-soybean/feed/ 0 2017-08-21 21:42 +00:00 2017-08-21 17:42 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14114 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-yet-for-late-season-pests-like-bean-leaf-beetle/ Baute Bug Blog Edible Beans Soybean Uncategorized bean leaf beetle soybean aphids stink bugs tarnished plant bug The Season is Not Over Yet for Late Season Pests Like Bean Leaf Beetle, Soybean Aphids and Others Despite it being the middle of August, some pests are not showing signs of wrapping this season up. Bean leaf beetle are a particular concern in food grade IP and seed soybeans and edible beans across Ontario.  As are pod piercing pests like stink bugs and tarnished plant bugs. Soybean aphids are also increasing in numbers, particularly in fields in... Fri, 18 Aug 2017 15:48:20 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-yet-for-late-season-pests-like-bean-leaf-beetle/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p>Despite it being the middle of August, some pests are not showing signs of wrapping this season up. <strong>Bean leaf beetle</strong> are a particular concern in food grade IP and seed soybeans and edible beans across Ontario.  As are pod piercing pests like<strong> stink bugs</strong> and <strong>tarnished plant bugs</strong>. <strong>Soybean aphids</strong> are also increasing in numbers, particularly in fields in Eastern Ontario. So scouting is not over yet , I am afraid.</p> <div id="attachment_14122" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-for-late-season-pests-of-late-season-pests/image-6-bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-h-bohner-omafra/" rel="attachment wp-att-14122"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14122" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-300x225.jpg" alt="Bean leaf beetle pod damage. Photo credit: H Bohner, OMAFRA" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-6-Bean-leaf-beetle-pod-damage-H-Bohner-OMAFRA-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Bean leaf beetle pod damage. H Bohner, OMAFRA</p></div> <p><strong><em>Bean leaf beetle</em> </strong>can feed on the leaves, although the defoliation they do rarely reach threshold levels to impact yield this time of year. It is their pod feeding that can be a concern, especially in the later R stages of pods.  Pod feeding can open the pods up to the development of pod diseases, impacting quality. Bean leaf beetle can also clip pods off of the plants which can have a direct impact to yield.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Scouting and Thresholds: </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>For R4–R6 Stage of IP, Food Grade and Seed Soybean and Dry Bean Fields &#8211;</strong> Assess 20 plants in five areas of the field. Avoid the field edge. Determine the percent defoliation and the number of pods damaged or clipped off and make note of the presence of adults.</p> <p style="padding-left: 60px;"><strong>For Soybeans:</strong> If 10% of the pods on the plants have feeding injury AND the beetles are still active in the field, a spray is warranted.  If pods are being clipped and found on the ground, an application is warranted if beetles are still active in the field. Consider days to harvest intervals before making a spray decision.</p> <p style="padding-left: 60px;"><strong>For Dry Beans</strong>: With higher value and stringent quality standards in dry edible beans, if 5%–8% of the pods inspected have feeding scars, control may be necessary. If pods are being clipped and found on the ground, an application is also warranted. Ensure that adults are still presently active in the field before a spray is applied.  Consider days to harvest intervals before making a spray decision.</p> <div id="attachment_14123" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-for-late-season-pests-of-late-season-pests/image-1b-brown-stink-bug-adult-baute/" rel="attachment wp-att-14123"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14123" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-300x211.jpg" alt="Brown stink bug on soybeans. T. Baute, OMAFRA" width="300" height="211" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-300x211.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-768x541.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Image-1b-Brown-Stink-Bug-adult-Baute-1024x721.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Brown stink bug on soybeans. T. Baute, OMAFRA</p></div> <p><em><strong>Stink bugs</strong></em> and <em><strong>tarnished plant bugs</strong></em> feed directly on pods and seeds. Both the adults and nymphs have piercing and sucking mouthparts for removing plant fluids. They inject digestive enzymes into the seeds, causing the seed to dimple or shrivel, resulting in picks. The feeding wound provides an avenue for diseases to gain entry into the pod. Seed quality is reduced. Indirect effects can include delayed maturity — green bean syndrome —of injured plants, though stink bugs are not the only cause for green bean syndrome.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Scouting and Thresholds:  </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">Take 20 sweep samples (in a 180° arc sweep) in five areas of the field. Determine the average number of adults and nymphs<br /> per sweep by dividing the total count by 100.<strong><br /> </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Stink bugs in Soybeans &#8211; </strong>Control may also be necessary in identity preserved (IP) food-grade and seed soybeans in R4 to early R6 stage,<br /> if an average of or 0.2 bugs per sweep is found (or 20 bugs in 100 sweeps). Even in crush beans, control may be warranted if an average of<br /> 0.4 adults or nymphs per sweep is found during the R4 to early R6 stages of soybeans.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Tarnished plant bug (TPB) in Dry Beans &#8211;</strong> Treatment may be required when an average of one to two tarnished plant bugs (nymphs<br /> or adults) per sweep is found during the pod stages.</p> <div id="attachment_14125" style="width: 310px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-for-late-season-pests-of-late-season-pests/c7-ladybeetle/" rel="attachment wp-att-14125"><img class="size-medium wp-image-14125" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-300x225.jpg" alt="Seven spotted lady beetle feeding on soybean aphids. T. Baute, OMAFRA" width="300" height="225" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-768x576.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/c7-ladybeetle-1024x768.jpg 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">Seven spotted lady beetle feeding on soybean aphids. T. Baute, OMAFRA</p></div> <p><strong><em>Soybean aphids </em></strong>are increasing in numbers per plant, particularly in Eastern Ontario.  Some fields in southern Ontario have experienced a significant drop in aphid numbers, likely in part due to natural enemies.</p> <p><strong>Scouting and Thresholds:  </strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">Fields that have aphids present should be scouted every 7–10 days until the crop is well into the R6 stage of soybeans. Scout fields more frequently (every 3–4 days) as aphid populations approach the threshold. Look at 20–30 random plants across the field. Avoid field edges. Estimate the number of aphids per plant in that field and the abundance of natural enemies present. A minimum of two field visits is required to confirm that aphid populations are increasing. The threshold for soybean aphids is 250 aphids per plant and actively increasing on 80% of the plants from the R1 up to and including the R5 stage of soybeans.  More aphids per plant are needed once soybeans are in the R6 stage. Beyond the early R6 stage, economic return from any insecticide application is not likely and pre-harvest intervals have been reached.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">Natural enemies play a big role in taking soybean aphids down below threshold, especially when aphid pops are just hovering below or above the threshold. Making observations of natural enemy presence can help you determine if a spray will be necessary. Use the free <a href="http://www.aphidapp.com/" target="_blank">Aphid Advisor app</a>, plugging in the number of aphids you see, as well as natural enemies. The app will calculate the number of aphids that will be fed on based on the natural enemy and aphid population and determine if a spray is necessary.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">For more information on any of these pests and registered products, please refer to the <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/p811toc.html" target="_blank">Agronomy Guide for Field Crops</a>. the <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html" target="_blank">Field Crop Protection Guide</a> and the <a href="http://gfo.ca/apps" target="_blank">Pest Manager App.</a></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/the-season-is-not-over-yet-for-late-season-pests-like-bean-leaf-beetle/feed/ 0 2017-08-18 15:48 +00:00 2017-08-18 11:48 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14117 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-17-2017/ Crop Reports Ontario Field Crop Report – August 17, 2017 Parts of southwestern Ontario remain dry, while eastern Ontario continues to have frequent rainfall and saturated soils in many areas. While yields have been good, making dry hay continues to be a struggle for many growers under the later conditions. Winter wheat harvest has continued this past week in eastern Ontario. Most fields in the area have yielded between 70... Thu, 17 Aug 2017 16:40:52 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-17-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p>Parts of southwestern Ontario remain dry, while eastern Ontario continues to have frequent rainfall and saturated soils in many areas. While yields have been good, making dry hay continues to be a struggle for many growers under the later conditions.</p> <p>Winter wheat harvest has continued this past week in eastern Ontario. Most fields in the area have yielded between 70 to 80 bushels per acre. Quality has generally been better than expected. Spring cereal harvest has just begun on a small number of acres that were able to be planted early this spring.</p> <p><strong>Insects:</strong></p> <p><strong>Soybean Aphids</strong> numbers are generally low, but increasing in some areas in eastern Ontario. Soybean growers should be scouting. Apply foliar insecticide when threshold of 250 aphids per plant with increasing populations has been reached in the R1–R5 stage of soybeans. If aphid populations do not appear to be on the increase above 250 per plant, do not apply insecticide, as it will kill off the beneficial insects that are keeping the aphid population in check. Aphids are then likely to increase quickly in the absence of their predators and could easily reach threshold.</p> <p>For further information on scouting techniques, thresholds and management options, see OMAFRA Publication 812, <em>Field Crop Protection Guide</em><em>. </em></p> <p><a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch2.pdf">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch2.pdf</a></p> <p><strong>Potato Leafhopper</strong> (PLH) continued to be a problem in many alfalfa stands particularly in eastern Ontario. Sweeps collected are showing at and above threshold numbers in many fields that have not been treated. Although PLH are rarely a problem in soybeans they can cause significant yield and quality losses in alfalfa and edible bean stands. New seedling alfalfa stands are particularly vulnerable as the PHL damage can weaken the new seedling alfalfa plant, making them more susceptible to stresses like winterkill.</p> <p>Economic losses occur before plant symptoms develop, so it is important to identify the presence of large leafhopper populations before the damage occurs. Scouting with a sweep net will help you determine whether early harvest or spraying is needed. Scout at intervals of 5 to 7 days. To determine the number of leafhoppers, including adults and nymphs, take 10 sweeps and divide the number of insect captured by 10. Do this in 5 representative areas of the field and note the height of the alfalfa. Recommended action thresholds are listed in Table 1 below:</p> <table width="75%"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2">Table 1: Thresholds for Potato Leafhoppers in Alfalfa</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Stem Height</strong></td> <td><strong># of PLH per sweep </strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td>9 cm (3.5 in.)</td> <td>0.2 adults</td> </tr> <tr> <td>15 cm (6 in.)</td> <td>0.5 adults</td> </tr> <tr> <td>25 cm (10 in.)</td> <td>1.0 adults or nymph</td> </tr> <tr> <td>36 cm (14 in.)</td> <td>2.0 adults or nymph</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>It is important to make decisions to control PLH based on these threshold numbers as spraying insecticides on alfalfa will also kill beneficial insects, the natural enemies of PLH and alfalfa weevil.</p> <p>Foliar insecticide options are available in Publication 812,<em> Field Crop Protection Guide</em> at:</p> <p><a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch3.pdf">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch3.pdf</a></p> <p><strong>Western Bean Cutworm</strong> (WBC) trap counts are still increasing in most counties north and east of Perth and into eastern Ontario. That means that WBC moth flight has not yet peaked in those areas. This is important because this also means that we have not reached peak egg laying in those areas and that there are a lot of moths flying around looking for somewhere to lay their eggs.  Late planted corn fields that are still in the early pollination stages (i.e. silks have not dried down yet) and edible beans are still at risk.</p> <p><strong>For late planted corn fields</strong>, most of what you need to know about scouting and management has already been posted in a previous blog here.</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/">http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/</a></p> <p><strong>For edible beans<em>, </em></strong>it is not as straight forward<em>. </em>Unlike in corn, WBC are nearly impossible to find in dry bean fields until pod feeding begins. Pheromone traps can still help indicate which fields are at greater risk though. Traps at dry bean fields that capture an accumulation of 50 or more moths per trap are likely at greater risk and require scouting for pod feeding.</p> <p>Pod feeding (Figure 1.) is expected to begin 10 to 20 days after peak moth flight has occurred, as indicated when trap counts begin to decline after weeks of steady increase.  Prior to pods being present on the plants, scouting for egg masses in adjacent cornfields can also help determine what the local WBC populations are like. If any of the corn fields in the immediate area are past early tasseling, the dry bean fields will be more attractive for the moths. If an adjacent corn field reached the corn egg mass threshold and required spraying, the dry bean field is also likely at risk.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14118" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_17_2017_f1-796x1024.jpg" alt="Figure 1: Western Bean Cutworm Pod Feeding" width="796" height="1024" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_17_2017_f1-796x1024.jpg 796w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_17_2017_f1-233x300.jpg 233w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_17_2017_f1-768x988.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 796px) 100vw, 796px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1:</strong>  Western Bean Cutworm Pod Feeding</p> <p>Photo by Jennifer Bruggeman, University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus</p> <p>Once pods are present, scout 100 plants (10 plants in 10 areas of the field). Look for signs of early surface feeding or holes going directly into the pod.  If pod feeding is easily found, a spray application is necessary. Control is still very effective when done as soon as pod feeding is found. WBC exit and enter new pods each night, so insecticides still work at controlling the larvae, as long as the pods are present during the application so that there is residue left on the pod surface.</p> <p>Spraying too early when pods are not present on the plants will not protect the crop from damage.  Spraying too late, when pod feeding has been taking place for some time will not reduce the risk of seed damage and pod disease incidence. The key is to protect the plants when the larvae are feeding on the pods.</p> <p>Foliar insecticide options are available in Publication 812, <em>Field Crop Protection Guide</em> at: <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch5.pdf">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch5.pdf</a></p> <p><strong>Table 2.   August 9-15, 2017 Weather Data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14119" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_17_2017_t1.jpg" alt="Table 2. August 9-15, 2017 Weather Data" width="539" height="432" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_17_2017_t1.jpg 539w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_17_2017_t1-300x240.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 539px) 100vw, 539px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-17-2017/feed/ 0 2017-08-17 16:40 +00:00 2017-08-17 12:40 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14108 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/western-bean-cutworm-still-a-concern-for-edible-beans-late-corn/ Baute Bug Blog Corn Edible Beans edible beans western bean cutworm Western Bean Cutworm Still A Concern For Edible Beans & Late Corn We are still seeing WBC trap counts going up in most counties north and east of Perth. That means that WBC moth flight has not yet peaked in those counties. This is important because this also means that we haven&#8217;t reached peak egg laying in those counties and that there are a wack of moths flying around looking for somewhere... Fri, 11 Aug 2017 17:35:23 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/western-bean-cutworm-still-a-concern-for-edible-beans-late-corn/#respond Tracey Baute <div class="pf-content"><p>We are still seeing WBC trap counts going up in most counties north and east of Perth. That means that WBC moth flight has not yet peaked in those counties. This is important because this also means that we haven&#8217;t reached peak egg laying in those counties and that there are a wack of moths flying around looking for somewhere to lay their eggs.  Where do they go this time of the season?  Late planted corn fields that are still in the early pollination stages (i.e. silks have not dried down yet) and edible beans.</p> <p><em><strong>For late planted corn fields</strong></em>, most of what you need to know about scouting and management has already been posted in a previous blog here. <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/" target="_blank">http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/</a></p> <p><strong><em>For edible beans, </em></strong>it is not as straight forward<em>. </em>Unlike in corn, WBC are nearly impossible to find in dry bean fields until pod feeding begins. Trap thresholds used in Nebraska have been found to be too high for the Great Lakes Region. So we rely on research and experience from Michigan State University.  Pheromone traps can still help indicate which fields are at greater risk though. Traps at dry bean fields that capture an accumulation of 50 or more moths per trap are likely at greater risk and require scouting for pod feeding.</p> <p>Pod feeding is expected to begin 10 to 20 days after peak moth flight has occurred, as indicated when trap counts begin to decline after weeks of steady increase.  Prior to pods being present on the plants, scouting for egg masses in adjacent cornfields can also help determine what the local WBC populations are like. If any of the corn fields in the immediate area are past early tasseling, the dry bean fields will be more attractive for the moths. If an adjacent corn field reached the corn egg mass threshold and required spraying, the dry bean field is also likely at risk.</p> <p><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/western-bean-cutworm-still-a-concern-for-edible-beans-late-corn/wbc-on-pods-j-bruggeman-2016-cropped/" rel="attachment wp-att-14109"><img class="alignright size-medium wp-image-14109" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/WBC-on-pods-J-Bruggeman-2016-cropped-233x300.jpg" alt="WBC larvae and damage on bean pods. J Bruggeman, UGRC 2016 cropped" width="233" height="300" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/WBC-on-pods-J-Bruggeman-2016-cropped-233x300.jpg 233w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/WBC-on-pods-J-Bruggeman-2016-cropped-768x988.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/WBC-on-pods-J-Bruggeman-2016-cropped-796x1024.jpg 796w" sizes="(max-width: 233px) 100vw, 233px" /></a>Once pods are present, scout 100 plants (10 plants in 10 areas of the field). Look for signs of early surface feeding or holes going directly into the pod.  If pod feeding is easily found, a spray application is necessary. Control is still very effective when done as soon as pod feeding is found. WBC exit and enter new pods each night, so insecticides still work at controlling the larvae, as long as the pods are present during the application so that there is residue left on the pod surface.</p> <p>Spraying too early when pods are not present on the plants will not protect the crop from damage.  Spraying too late, when pod feeding has been taking place for some time will not reduce the risk of seed damage and pod disease incidence. The key is to protect the plants when the larvae are feeding on the pods.</p> <p>Foliar insecticide options are available in Publication 812, Field Crop Protection Guide at: <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch5.pdf" target="_blank">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/pub812ch5.pdf</a></p> <p>We are continuing efforts in researching WBC in dry beans. A collaborative effort is underway this summer with OMAFRA (Meghan Moran and myself), UGRC (Chris Gillard) and Hensall District Co-op (Jim Barclay), collecting data from a number of side by side corn and dry bean fields, in hopes of increasing our understanding of this pest and dry bean risk factors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/western-bean-cutworm-still-a-concern-for-edible-beans-late-corn/feed/ 0 2017-08-11 17:35 +00:00 2017-08-11 13:35 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14092 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-10-2017/ Crop Reports Edible Beans cover crops manure western bean cutworm ONTARIO FIELD CROP REPORT – August 10, 2017 Western Bean Cutworm Update Western Bean Cutworm continues to be a concern for pollinating corn in areas with high trap counts.  Peak moth flight has occurred in some of the counties in the southwest but counties east and north of Middlesex and those in Central and Eastern Ontario have not reached peak yet.  Moths will now be looking for late... Thu, 10 Aug 2017 15:49:36 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-10-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Western Bean Cutworm Update</strong></p> <p>Western Bean Cutworm continues to be a concern for pollinating corn in areas with high trap counts.  Peak moth flight has occurred in some of the counties in the southwest but counties east and north of Middlesex and those in Central and Eastern Ontario have not reached peak yet.  Moths will now be looking for late planted corn that is still in the early tasseling stages or will focus on edible beans. Focus scouting efforts in those corn fields that do not have dried silks yet.  <span id="more-14092"></span>Edible bean growers need to scout for pod feeding once pods are present.  Edible bean fields that are adjacent to corn fields that reached WBC eggmass threshold this year are likely also at risk.  It is best to control fields as soon as pod feeding is observed.  The larvae are exposed to the insecticide when they make holes in the pods to get to the seed. For additional information on WBC thresholds as well as optimal scouting and insecticide application timing see (<a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/">http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/</a>). Information on product choices is available in the OMAFRA Field Crop Protection Guide (<a href="http://www.ontario.ca/ctaw">ontario.ca/ctaw</a>).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14093" style="width: 932px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-full wp-image-14093" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f1.jpg" alt="western bean cutworm feeding on edible bean pods. brown lesions on beans. " width="922" height="518" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f1.jpg 922w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f1-300x169.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f1-768x431.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f1-710x399.jpg 710w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f1-910x512.jpg 910w" sizes="(max-width: 922px) 100vw, 922px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 1: Western Bean Cutworm feeding on edible bean pods.</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14095" style="width: 434px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-full wp-image-14095" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f2.jpg" alt="photo of seed damage in edible beans" width="424" height="637" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f2.jpg 424w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f2-200x300.jpg 200w" sizes="(max-width: 424px) 100vw, 424px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 2: Seed damage in edible beans from WBC (Credit: DiFonzo, MSU)</p></div> <p><strong>Post Wheat Harvest Manure Application: </strong></p> <p>For livestock producers and those using organic amendments, the post wheat harvest season is an excellent opportunity to apply manure for nutrients and organic matter.  Spreading workload, reduced compaction and reduced risk of environmental losses from runoff and erosion, as well as the opportunity to combine the benefits of feeding cover crops with manure, are all benefits of manure applied during the growing season.</p> <p>Where manure or other organic amendments are applied to fields it is important to take a sample for analysis to help determine available nutrients and potential commercial fertilizer savings.  Along with analysis for N, P and K in manure, additional tests will help determine nutrient availability.  Testing for sulphur will provide an indication of elemental sulphur content which is released to a crop similar to organic nitrogen and can provide all or some of the sulphur needs, especially for wheat and forage crops.  Testing for C:N (carbon to nitrogen) ratio for solid manure and amendments will help indicate if additional commercial N will be required for a corn crop.  C:N ratios below 20:1 will have adequate nitrogen to help with the breakdown of carbon.  Materials with C:N ratios over 30:1 (especially for spring applied materials) should determine with pre-side dress N test if addition N will be required.  With liquid materials, testing the pH will help determine the potential for rapid ammonium N loss where manure is not injected or immediately incorporated.  Liquid manure with high NH<sub>4</sub>-N levels combined with high pH (above 7.8) will lose the majority of the quickly available nitrogen in the first 24 hours, especially when combined with warm dry soils and/or high winds over bare soils.</p> <p>Often there is too little credit given to the nitrogen supplied by fall-applied manure.  A general guideline with fall applied manure is to credit half the total nitrogen from the analysis.  Cattle manure with heavy bedding and/or amendments with high carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio will have lower (30 to 40%) nitrogen credit while broiler poultry manure will have higher N credits (50 – 60%).  Mild winter conditions will increase available N from solid manure but can reduce nitrogen contribution from liquid manure where ammonium N (NH<sub>4</sub>-N) is higher.   An early warm period in spring also increases nitrogen contribution from manure to a crop, while a cool wet spring will slow down nutrient release; not able to meet the N needs of a rapid growing corn crop during the period ahead of pollination.  Slow release nitrogen from manure will contribute to yield after pollination, especially in areas where frequent and heavy rain may have resulted in denitrification or leaching of commercial N sources.  Tissue tests of fields with evidence of some N deficiency on lower corn leaves reveal that levels are still within the normal range.  Where manure or other amendments were applied there should be adequate nitrogen to meet remaining crop needs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14097" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-large wp-image-14097" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f3-1024x700.jpg" alt="Photo of compost application into a standing crop of red clover will provide nutrients and organic matter to feed soil micro organisms while minimizing compaction damage." width="1024" height="700" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f3-1024x700.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f3-300x205.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_10_2017_f3-768x525.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Figure 3:  Compost application into a standing crop of red clover will provide nutrients and organic matter to feed soil micro organisms while minimizing compaction damage.</p></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div id="attachment_14099" style="width: 721px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img class="size-full wp-image-14099" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/August-2-8-2017_OntFarmer.jpg" alt="Chart showing weather data from Aug 2-8" width="711" height="520" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/August-2-8-2017_OntFarmer.jpg 711w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/August-2-8-2017_OntFarmer-300x219.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 711px) 100vw, 711px" /><p class="wp-caption-text">Table 1. August 2-8, 2017 Weather Data</p></div> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-10-2017/feed/ 0 2017-08-10 15:49 +00:00 2017-08-10 11:49 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14076 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/crop-response-to-herbicides-applied-prior-to-and-after-emergence/ Uncategorized Crop response to herbicides applied prior to and after emergence. For over 30 years, the Ontario Agriculture Weed&#8217;s team has competed in the Collegiate Weed Science Competition organized by the North Eastern Weed Science Society. In preparation for the &#8220;herbicide identification&#8221; portion of the competition, an area at the Elora Research Station is planted to a number of different crop and weed species and then sprayed with several herbicides. This training... Tue, 08 Aug 2017 21:50:12 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/crop-response-to-herbicides-applied-prior-to-and-after-emergence/#respond Mike Cowbrough <div class="pf-content"><p>For over 30 years, the Ontario Agriculture Weed&#8217;s team has competed in the <a href="http://www.newss.org/sciencecontest.php" target="_blank">Collegiate Weed Science Competition </a>organized by the North Eastern Weed Science Society. In preparation for the &#8220;herbicide identification&#8221; portion of the competition, an area at the Elora Research Station is planted to a number of different crop and weed species and then sprayed with several herbicides.</p> <div id="attachment_14078" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IMG_9178.jpg"><img class="size-large wp-image-14078" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IMG_9178-1024x683.jpg" alt="The herbicide identification training plot at the Elora Research Station typically contains over 30 herbicide treatments sprayed across over 20 different plant species." width="1024" height="683" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IMG_9178-1024x683.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IMG_9178-300x200.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/IMG_9178-768x512.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">The herbicide identification training plot at the Elora Research Station typically contains over 30 herbicide treatments sprayed across over 20 different plant species.</p></div> <p>This training plot provides an opportunity to look for potential new herbicide options in crops that perhaps don&#8217;t get a lot of attention  (e.g. forage, pumpkins). It gives insight into how sensitive crops would be to an off-target herbicide drift event or tank contamination and it allows us to look at cover crop sensitivity to herbicides.</p> <p>In the past, I would rate herbicide injury to each crop on a scale of 0 to 100% where  0% means &#8220;no observed affect&#8221; and 100% means &#8220;dead&#8221;. I would also take photos of any dramatic and visual responses. These ratings and photos have mainly been left on my computer for my own use but I thought it might be a good idea to make these observations public.</p> <p>This post will serve as a landing page for summaries of crop responses to different herbicides applied prior to and after their emergence.</p> <ol> <li><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Annual-Rye-Grass-Herbicides-2017_low_res.pdf" target="_blank"><strong>Annual rye grass (<em>Lolium multiflorum)</em></strong></a></li> <li><a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Crimson-Herbicides-2017_low.pdf" target="_blank"><strong>Crimson clover (<em>Trifolium incarnatum</em>)</strong></a></li> </ol> <p>More crops will be forthcoming&#8230;</p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/crop-response-to-herbicides-applied-prior-to-and-after-emergence/feed/ 0 2017-08-08 21:50 +00:00 2017-08-08 17:50 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14067 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-3-2017/ Uncategorized Ontario Field Crop Report – August 3, 2017 Cover Crops The underseeded red clover is looking pretty good where the winter wheat has been harvested. As is often the case some fields have variable stands and others have poor or non-existent stands. If the red clover stand is poor and it is insured nothing can be done until it is released by Agricorp. If it is not insured... Thu, 03 Aug 2017 14:35:48 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-3-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Cover Crops</strong></p> <p>The underseeded red clover is looking pretty good where the winter wheat has been harvested. As is often the case some fields have variable stands and others have poor or non-existent stands. If the red clover stand is poor and it is insured nothing can be done until it is released by Agricorp. If it is not insured then now is a good time to improve it. If there are some thin spots in it, those areas can be patched with another legume. Crimson clover is a good option and red clover can also be seeded at this time. Other clovers or peas are good options as well. If all that is desired is inexpensive quick cover then oats are a good option. If very little red clover exists there a wide range of options to choose from.</p> <p>If no cover crop was planned after winter wheat it is not too late to consider planting one. Cover crops can help improve soil structure, protect the soil from erosion, feed soil life, suppress weeds, cycle nutrients, and provide feed for livestock and much more. Research at University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus has shown that planting a cover crop provides a benefit, even if the growth is limited. So consider the options and find a way to reap the benefits of cover crops.</p> <p>Select a cover crop to meet the goals for the field. Also consider how it will fit into your cropping and tillage system and how much time there will be for the cover crop to grow. Some options that will achieve good ground cover at a reasonable cost are: oats or barley, oats and radish, and oats and peas.  Combinations of a grass or cereal, legume and brassica also work well and can provide a diversity of growth and root types.</p> <p>Before planting a cover crop it is important to think about what management it may require. Many cover crops are killed by frost and don’t require a herbicide treatment. Others will survive the winter and will need to be killed in the fall or spring. Some will go to seed, so they will need to be mowed or managed before then. Tillage, using a roller crimper or grazing are other methods that can be used to manage or terminate the cover crop.</p> <p>Plant the cover crop as soon as possible to achieve the most growth. Drilling the cover crop in is the most effective but other methods can work. If planting is delayed until after Labour Day it is best to plant a winter cereal as a frost will likely kill off other cover crops before they can achieve much growth.</p> <p>Some areas have had too much rain and parts of fields or whole fields have no crop in them. For some options for those fields visit the Field Crop News site.</p> <p>New this year Agricorp is offering production insurance for cover crops. The coverage is called New Forage Seeding and is available for a wide range of cover crops. The acreage to be covered must be reported by September 1<sup>st</sup>. Visit the Agricorp website for more information.</p> <p>The OMAFRA website <a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca</a> (in the soil management section) provides comprehensive information on cover crop species selection and management. OMAFRA also has a poster and series of cards that provide information on cover crop options and seeding rates. The Field Crop News website <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/">http://fieldcropnews.com/</a> has several articles on cover crops as well.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14070" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f1-e1501770517200.jpg" alt="Figure 1. A cover crop mixture can provide crop diversity and a variety of root types." width="570" height="843" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f1-e1501770517200.jpg 570w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f1-e1501770517200-203x300.jpg 203w" sizes="(max-width: 570px) 100vw, 570px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1.</strong>  A cover crop mixture can provide crop diversity and a variety of root types.</p> <p><strong>Soybean Disease and Insects</strong></p> <p>The hot dry conditions have been good for a number of soybean diseases and pests.  One of these is the two- spotted spider mite which feed on individual plant cells on the underside of leaves. The feeding can cause severe stippling/speckling, yellowing, curling and bronzing of the leaves. Upon close examination, fine webbing on lower surfaces of the leaf can be seen. Spider mites usually start at the edges of the field, but windy days can carry them in from other sites, with pockets starting up deeper into the field. From the road, these pockets may be confused for drought stress. Scout margins of the field for spider mite injury and if areas continue to expand and an average of 4 mites per leaf is found an insecticide spot or field spray may be necessary.  Do not use a pyrethroid insecticide for the control of spider mites, as it will kill the beneficial mites and cause the spider mite populations to increase.</p> <p>Soybean cyst nematode and sudden death syndrome are two diseases which have been favoured by the dry conditions.  Both of these can also look like other problems including manganese.  Dig plants with a shovel and gently remove soil and examine roots for the presence of the small white to yellow coloured cysts. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) symptoms appear on the leaves as yellow and brown areas between the veins while the veins remain green which can be confused with manganese deficiency (Figure 2.). Leaves will drop but the petioles will remain in those plants infected with SDS.  To confirm SDS, cut the root and stems and look for root rot and brown discoloured streaks in the stem. The center pith will remain white.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14073" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f2-1024x758.jpg" alt="Figure 2. Sudden Death Syndrome." width="1024" height="758" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f2-1024x758.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f2-300x222.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f2-768x568.jpg 768w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_f2.jpg 1153w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 2.</strong>  Sudden Death Syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   July 26 – August 1, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14074" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_t1.jpg" alt="Table 1. July 26 – August 1, 2017 Weather data" width="544" height="435" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_t1.jpg 544w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_August_03_2017_t1-300x240.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 544px) 100vw, 544px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/08/ontario-field-crop-report-august-3-2017/feed/ 0 2017-08-03 14:35 +00:00 2017-08-03 10:35 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14060 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/ontario-field-crop-report-july-27-2017/ Uncategorized Ontario Field Crop Report – July 27, 2017 General Another large hit of rainfall in eastern Ontario has put a stop to field work in the area again. Other parts of the province were slowed down by smaller amounts of rainfall over the weekend and overnight Thursday; however combining and hay harvest have started again. The two week forecast is showing some real opportunity to get field work... Thu, 27 Jul 2017 16:17:46 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/ontario-field-crop-report-july-27-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>General</strong></p> <p>Another large hit of rainfall in eastern Ontario has put a stop to field work in the area again. Other parts of the province were slowed down by smaller amounts of rainfall over the weekend and overnight Thursday; however combining and hay harvest have started again.</p> <p>The two week forecast is showing some real opportunity to get field work done so combines and sprayers are rolling and hay equipment is in the field.</p> <p><strong>Cereals</strong></p> <p>Good progress has been made on harvest in Essex and Kent, areas further east and north started the first of this week. Harvest to date has shown average to above average yields and good grain quality. Protein is running 9-9.5%. Despite the wet conditions so far in the 2017 field season, there has been very little fusarium or other disease impacts showing up in the crop harvested to date.</p> <p>When combining, think about plans for the field following harvest. Ensure the combine is spreading the chaff uniformly and broadly. The goal should be to spread the width of the header. Where red clover is underseeded, this is especially important to ensure that the sensitive red clover seedlings are not smothered. Where straw is to be harvested ensure the swaths are quickly baled and removed from the field to aid red clover growth. Where straw is being left in the field, ensure it is well chopped and evenly spread as it has an impact on decisions related tillage, cover crop planting and volunteer wheat termination.</p> <p>Volunteer wheat is a problem in lost revenue, and red clover or annual cover crop stands for both seedling establishment and plans for terminating the cover crop.  With lots of moisture red clover should flourish rapidly and germination of annual cover crops planted in the next month should be excellent. Watch the planting timing of cover crops relative to the species choice and expected growth possible with the amount of moisture available.</p> <p><strong>Corn</strong></p> <p>See last week’s crop report for coverage on Western Bean Cutworm (WBC) (<a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/">http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/</a>). In terms of tasselling, there are almost 3 distinct crops across the province based on planting date. Many fields are not uniform because of the cool damp weather and this makes insecticide timing for optimal WBC control problematic. A lot of fields are currently coming into tassel and silking has or will begin shortly. WBC has been found in many fields and in non-traditional areas where this pest has not previously been a problem. Scout! Where insecticides are deemed necessary, timing is critical to achieve optimum control. The goal is to protect the silks which the larvae feed on and result in injury to the ear and entry for disease. Consult the Field Crop News website at <a href="http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/">http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/for-western-bean-cutworm-timing-is-key/</a> for additional information on WBC thresholds as well as optimal scouting and insecticide application timing. Information on product choices is available in the OMAFRA Field Crop Protection Guide (<a href="http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html">http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub812/p812toc.html</a> )</p> <p>Ontario and United States (US) data indicates that disease pressure is an extremely important consideration when making a fungicide application decision, since it has a major influence on overall yield response and profitability. Significant numbers of acres are being considered for fungicide treatment. Basing foliar fungicide application decisions on disease risk (weather, hybrid susceptibility, previous crop, planting date, history of disease in field, etc.) will increase the likelihood of making profitable fungicide application decisions. Therefore, targeting fields with the greatest risk and using scouting observations to trigger application decisions for foliar fungicide will result in a better chance of the treatment being profitable.  Fungicide applications to corn at the tassel (VT) growth stage has been most consistent at reducing disease and improving yields especially when conditions are favorable for diseases such as northern corn leaf blight (frequent rain/dews and cool temperatures (18-27<sup>o</sup>C)) (Figure 1.).  In year’s with delayed corn plantings such as 2017, late season corn leaf diseases (northern corn leaf blight, common rust and gray leaf spot)(Figures 2. and 3.) as well as stalk rots and ear rots often are a problem and as noted above, target fungicide applications to the fields with the greatest risk.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14061" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg" alt="Northern Corn Leaf Blight" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f1-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f1-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f1-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1:</strong> Northern Corn Leaf Blight</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14062" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg" alt="Common Leaf Rust" width="1024" height="768" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f2-1024x768.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f2-300x225.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f2-768x576.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 2:</strong> Common Leaf Rust</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14063" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f3-1024x681.jpg" alt="Gray Leaf Spot" width="1024" height="681" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f3-1024x681.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f3-300x200.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_f3-768x511.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 3:</strong> Gray Leaf Spot</p> <p><strong>Soybeans</strong></p> <p>In many areas the soybeans have seen significant improvement in the last week. They and other crops continue to need sunshine and warm temperatures.</p> <p>Insect pressure has been relatively low across the province despite the weather. Aphids are present in fields in many locations but at very low populations in most cases. Scouting to monitor this pest is important.</p> <p>Many areas continue to receive above average rainfall.  This, along with cooler summer temperatures, makes ideal conditions for white mould development and other diseases in soybeans.  Foliar fungicides should be considered if a field has a history of white mould or shows symptoms of other foliar diseases.  Fields with continuous soybeans in the rotation often respond more to foliar fungicides than fields with a good crop rotation.  For most diseases an R2 (full bloom) up to R3 (early pod formation) timing is considered ideal to protect the most flowers as possible.  Ontario yield trials have shown that a mid R2 timing provides a higher yield response than spraying at later growth stages.  Spraying too early (before flowering) has shown no yield benefits.  If white mould is the only disease of concern a two application strategy should be used if weather conditions favour the disease.  In this case the first application may be applied as early as R1 (beginning bloom) followed by a second application 10 to 14 days later. Once the disease is visible it’s too late to spray.  Only some foliar fungicides registered for soybeans have activity on white mould so check the label before application.</p> <p><strong>Canola</strong></p> <p>With the extended planting window for canola this spring, some fields are still flowering but most have passed this stage. While swede midge has been in high numbers in trap counts this year, the amount of damage detectable in the crop is relatively low although incidence of damage can be found in almost every field.</p> <p><strong>Edible Beans</strong></p> <p>Beans are moving toward row closure in most fields, but it has been slow this season. Fungicides are standard practice in edible beans. Timing should be at 30-50% bloom. There is concern for root rots with the season’s weather and growers should be on the lookout for anthracnose.</p> <p><strong>Forages</strong></p> <p>While much of the provinces haylage has been harvested with good quality for both cuts so far, dry hay quality is suffering. There are still people working to get a first cut of dry hay harvested. Yields have been okay for the most part although potato leaf hopper has been caused significant yield loss and seedling stand loss, especially in the east. While both cutting timing and insecticides are standard management practices for this pest, the wet weather has prevented many people from doing either on a timely basis. Stands will have to be assessed thoroughly in late fall and next spring to allow planning for the required amount of forage required next spring.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   July 19 – 25, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14065" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_t1.jpg" alt="July 19 – 25, 2017 Weather data" width="537" height="432" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_t1.jpg 537w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_27_2017_t1-300x241.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 537px) 100vw, 537px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/ontario-field-crop-report-july-27-2017/feed/ 0 2017-07-27 16:17 +00:00 2017-07-27 12:17 -04:00 http://fieldcropnews.com/?p=14044 http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/ Uncategorized OMAFRA Field Crop Report – July 20, 2017 Cereals Winter wheat harvest has begun throughout southwest Ontario but intermittent rainfall has caused delays. Some farmers in Essex County have finished harvest and initial word is that the quality and yield of the crop has been good. Harvest progress is likely 7-10 days behind what was observed in 2016 but comparable to the 2015 season. Post-harvest weed management A... Thu, 20 Jul 2017 20:16:36 Z http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/#respond OMAFRA Field Crop Team <div class="pf-content"><p><strong>Cereals</strong></p> <p>Winter wheat harvest has begun throughout southwest Ontario but intermittent rainfall has caused delays. Some farmers in Essex County have finished harvest and initial word is that the quality and yield of the crop has been good. Harvest progress is likely 7-10 days behind what was observed in 2016 but comparable to the 2015 season.</p> <p><strong>Post-harvest weed management</strong></p> <p>A significant amount of annual weed seeds can be produced and dispersed after wheat harvest if the ground is left fallow. In some years, annual weed seed can mature in as little as 4 weeks after harvest. Planting a cover crop (i.e. oats) after wheat harvest can do a nice job of minimizing the amount of annual weeds going to seed and then allows for an opportunity in the fall to terminate the cover crop and deal with perennial weeds at the same time.  If it is not desirable to plant a cover crop, shallow tillage can also reduce the amount of weeds setting seed and will allow the perennial weeds to re-grow so that they can be managed in the fall.</p> <p>If red clover was inter-seeded into the wheat crop there are a couple of ways that you can knock back annual weed growth so that you can let the clover grow as much as possible and maximize its nitrogen credit. The tried and true method, but most labour intensive, is to “clip” or trim the top of the red clover which will ‘chop off’ the weed seed heads at the same time. More recently OMAFRA and the University of Guelph have experimented with the application of MCPA as a way to manage broadleaf weeds in a red clover cover crop. There are three key learnings from this work.</p> <ul> <li>The ester formulation of MCPA (Figure 1.) causes significantly less plant damage then the amine formulation (Figure 2.)</li> <li>Red clover biomass is initially stunted during the first week after application but does recover within 2-3 weeks.</li> <li>Targeting broadleaf weeds when they are smaller will result in better control. If annual grassy weeds are predominant then the application of MCPA Ester will be insufficient and clipping is a better option to minimize weed seed dispersal.</li> </ul> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14045" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-1024x765.jpg" alt="Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Ester (left) compared to an un-treated strip. Note the curling of the leaves giving a slightly grey appearance" width="1024" height="765" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-1024x765.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-300x224.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f1-768x574.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 1:</strong>  Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Ester (left) compared to an un-treated strip. Note the curling of the leaves giving a slightly grey appearance.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14047" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-1024x765.jpg" alt="Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Amine (left) compared to an un-treated strip. The amine formulation has consistently provided greater foliar burn then the ester formulation." width="1024" height="765" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-1024x765.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-300x224.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f2-768x574.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 2:</strong>  Red clover at 7 days after an application of MCPA Amine (left) compared to an un-treated strip. The amine formulation has consistently provided greater foliar burn then the ester formulation.</p> <p><strong>Corn</strong></p> <p>Western bean cutworm moths have been found in traps throughout southwestern Ontario (Figure 3.). An interactive map of trapping numbers can be found at <a href="http://www.cornpest.ca">www.cornpest.ca</a> .  Moth flight activity has indicated that it’s a good time to scout fields for egg masses which have become visible in several fields (Figure 4.) with some approaching or are above the action threshold of 5 egg mass per 100 corn plants.  Peak flight has not occurred yet in Ontario so to provide the most protection with one application, time the application once threshold has been reached and when there is an ear developing with fresh silks.  Download the pestmanager app (<a href="http://www.pestmanager.ca">www.pestmanager.ca</a>) to have access to management options for this pest.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14049" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-1024x562.jpg" alt="Map of Western Bean Cutworm found in traps throughout Ontario. Grey dots indicate that no data has been collected, Blue dots indicate no moths have been captured, green dots indicate 1-50 moths have been captured, yellow indicates 51-100 moths have been captured and orange dots indicate that 101-250 moths have been captured." width="1024" height="562" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-1024x562.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-300x165.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f3-768x422.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 3:</strong>  Map of Western Bean Cutworm found in traps throughout Ontario. Grey dots indicate that no data has been collected, Blue dots indicate no moths have been captured, green dots indicate 1-50 moths have been captured,  yellow indicates 51-100 moths have been captured and orange dots indicate that 101-250 moths have been captured.</p> <p><img class="alignnone size-large wp-image-14051" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-1024x814.jpg" alt="Newly hatched western bean cutworms (1st instars) from an egg mass." width="1024" height="814" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-1024x814.jpg 1024w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-300x238.jpg 300w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_f4-768x610.jpg 768w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /></p> <p><strong>Figure 4:</strong>  Newly hatched western bean cutworms (1<sup>st</sup> instars) from an egg mass.</p> <p><strong>Soybeans</strong></p> <p>There have been no significant reports of soybean aphids, although regular scouting should be done from now until the R6 (full seed) stage of soybean to minimize any yield loss with this pest.  The action threshold is 250 aphids per plant, and with actively increasing populations on 80% of those plants when the crop is in the R1 stage until end of R5 stage.</p> <p><strong>Edible beans:</strong> Monitor traps to determine WBC presence in your area and be aware of what WBC infestations are like in adjacent corn fields.  Bean fields should be scouted as soon as a pod is developing to spot any pod feeding by western bean cutworm. Refer to the moth trapping maps at <a href="http://www.cornpest.ca">www.cornpest.ca</a>  to identify areas where moths are actively being trapped.</p> <p><strong>Table 1.   July 12 – 18, 2017 Weather data</strong></p> <p><img class="alignnone size-full wp-image-14055" src="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_t1.jpg" alt=" July 12 – 18, 2017 Weather data" width="537" height="432" srcset="http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_t1.jpg 537w, http://fieldcropnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ontario-Field-Crop-Report_July_20_2017_t1-300x241.jpg 300w" sizes="(max-width: 537px) 100vw, 537px" /></p> </div> http://fieldcropnews.com/2017/07/omafra-field-crop-report-july-20-2017/feed/ 0 2017-07-20 20:16 +00:00 2017-07-20 16:16 -04:00